14 juillet 2012

The Cinderella of Tertiary Education: Postsecondary Vocational Education and Training

IMHE Info (Programme Institutional Management in Higher Education) May 2012.
The Cinderella of Tertiary Education: Postsecondary Vocational Education and Training
While tertiary education is expanding rapidly, how post-secondary vocational education and training (PSV) contributes to this expansion is rarely taken into account. PSV is often seen as a second choice, less glamorous than privileged universities associated with centuries of elite academic tradition and excellence. Post-secondary vocational education and training institutions are not included in the global rankings of world-renowned universities which attract the best students and provide access to the most prestigious jobs. However, this type of education is here to stay. In many countries post-secondary vocational education and training is booming as demonstrated by the number of enrolled students and PSV graduates in high skill jobs.
It is difficult to have a globally-acceptable definition of PSV because the range of institutions varies widely as do programme features. A current OECD study has therefore adopted a pragmatic definition of these programmes: one to four year programmes (full-time equivalent), depending on the country, that prepare students for direct entry into the labour market in a specific profession. These programmes are provided beyond upper secondary level (International Standard Classification of Education - ISCED 4, 5), through which students may obtain recognised qualifications. This does not include programmes beyond bachelor degree or the equivalent.
Post-secondary vocational education and training institutions offer PSV programmes regardless of their governance and funding structure. They may also provide other education and training programmes. For example, community colleges in the United States offer a wide range of vocational as well as academic programmes, while Swiss professional education and training colleges provide specific PSV programmes.
For employers education is important as it has a direct bearing on worker productivity. Two identical workers with different educational backgrounds performing identical tasks will produce different outputs. Some jobs require high level education and training (doctors, lawyers) while there is not much comparative advantage of a well educated workforce in other types of jobs (cleaners). As a result, the need for more education-intensive jobs in response to changes in the economy and labour market will increase the demand for high level education. In recent decades, employment has risen in high skill occupational groups in most OECD countries while at the same time the middle skill job sector has contracted. There has also been an increase in low-skill occupations such as elementary jobs, as well as sales and services while the number of workers in clerk positions has been steadily falling. Employment in fields such as crafts and plant operators has also dropped off. This phenomenon has sometimes been described as a ‘hollowing out’ of the labour market.
Stronger links and inter-reliance between countries affects PSV systems. The impact of globalisation is evident not only through cross-border movements of students and graduates but also through more indirect routes such as foreign direct investment and international trade. This is not only about the movement of people across borders but also increasing cross-border movement of goods, services, technology and capital resulting in greater international competition. Yet at the same time, for companies in national markets, globalisation provides new market opportunities in other countries. Companies operating in diverse markets therefore require more “globalised” skills and competencies. For example, a tax specialist working for clients in various countries might be required to understand the relevant rules and tax laws of several countries. To ensure that graduates completing post-secondary programmes are well prepared for increasingly globalised jobs, both local and international aspects relevant to the field of study need to be well integrated into study programmes. In practical terms, this might require teaching staff to keep abreast of recent changes in policy, research findings and technological innovations and to update study content to reflect recent developments.
Prior to setting up in another economic market, companies take into account available human capital, as well as other factors such as transport costs, plant economies of scale and other local market characteristics. Countries with a highly skilled workforce are less competitive in low skill sectors. PSV can play an important role in helping companies promote job creation in high skill sectors to prevent the outflow of capital and investment.
The response of PSV institutions to labour market needs depends on the mix of programmes and the skills obtained within each programme. PSV should provide the skills and knowledge necessary for students to be able to accomplish successfully the tasks that the job entails. Students who are trained using outdated equipment or who are not up to par on important aspects of their specialised field are at a significant disadvantage as they finish their studies poorly prepared for the job for which they have been supposedly trained. As a result, they have little comparative advantage in specific occupations and employers are more likely
to hire people with better credentials. For institutions, this might lead to fewer enrolments, less public funding and diminished confidence in the credentials they provide on the labour market. Institutions therefore need to consider both employer needs and students’ interest in the set of skills that students develop through the programme.
Employers should indicate the skills they require so that PSV can adjust their programmes accordingly. To ensure employer participation in PSV, many countries have introduced a legal obligation for stakeholders and institutions to consult employers on various matters including the mix of the education provided. To this end, labour market representatives are often included on the governing boards of institutions. The willingness of employers to provide on-the-job training is a good indicator of employer needs.
New OE CD work to boost entrepreneurship: Review of Skills for Entrepreneurship

Universities can provide a unique environment for nurturing high growth enterprises, spin-offs and graduate start-ups. A new OECD activity has been launched to assist universities, governments at different levels and development agencies to evaluate and improve the effectiveness of policies, strategies, structures and practices in university support of entrepreneurship. This would increase start-up, survival and growth rates of graduate enterprises and showcase best practices throughout the world.
This review evaluates university entrepreneurship against OECD criteria, together with a policy development workshop to create and agree on a local action plan to implement recommendations. It includes: a) a comparative survey of university entrepreneurship strategy and practices, b) a detailed assessment of challenges and opportunities, c) tailored recommendations for policy improvements and a Policy Action Plan, d) comparison of the quality of local entrepreneurship support with institutions and regions in other countries, and e) a set of international learning model programmes.
Individual universities, groupings of universities and other higher education institutions, national and sub-national government authorities and economic development agencies are invited to apply to join a new review round that starts in early 2013. Studies take 9-12 months to complete. To know more about the benefits, contents, costs and scope of the review, please contact jaana.puukka@oecd.org or jonathan.potter@oecd.org.
The Managing Internationalisation initiative

The OECD Programme on Institutional Management in Higher Education (IMHE) studies how the increasingly global nature of higher education is changing the ways in which higher education institutions view their role, mission and the way in which they work.
As part of this initiative, two conferences were organised. The first one focused on the Strategic Management of Internationalisation in Higher Education at Lund University in association with the Nordic University Association (NUS) and the Nordic Association of University Administrators (NUAS). The second one, co-organised with the State University of New York, examined Internationalisation for Job Creation and Economic Growth.
From the conference held in Lund, three main challenges were identified: i) cultural understanding; ii) more encompassing management strategies; and iii) the need for regulatory frameworks. Key recommendations emphasised that internationalisation should be included in the debate on improving quality assessment in institutions and include staff and students in the management groups; HEIs should seek government support in the development of international strategies; internationalisation strategies and policies should not be one-size-fits-all but rather amended to fit the size and type of the institution.
Breaking away from the rhetoric seeking to explain and rethink internationalisation, the conference held in New York underscored the concrete issues and actions to be taken by universities and governments in order to best exploit and deal with internationalisation for economic growth. The four main conclusions were:
• There is a consensus on the economic value of internationalisation but not all participants considered that internationalisation might be an economic driver. University leaders still essentially recognise the student social and civic engagement without enlarging the potential effects of international education.
• The economic impact of internationalisation draws an increasing interest from governments and higher education systems (e.g., regional consortia, multi-campus systems, home and offshore systems…). Both play a growing role in fostering or inhibiting internationalisation, either via regulations or incentives.
• Likewise governments and systems also acknowledge that the internationalisation of higher education led by universities have an impact on their policies, particularly when it comes to national security and trade. Some national authorities have subsequently fostered economic ties with foreign governments as to control and facilitate the import and export of higher education. The individual impact of internationalisation on students’ experience is not the main purpose of governmental intervention (unlike for universities) but the wider development lever that internationalisation can spur on.
• Therefore, discussions on internationalisation should include governments, systems and the institutions.
SUNY, along with its 64 campuses, is developing the concept of “systemness” as a driver to respond consistently to current challenges in the US and the results of the severe economic downturn in the industrial areas of New York State. Nancy Zimpher, Chancellor of SUNY, defined the systemness to mean “the coordination of multiple components that, when working together, create a network of activity that is more powerful than any action of individual parts on their own.”
IMHE has held online focus groups to further explore aspects of the internationalisation of higher education. The findings of these sessions will be compiled into a report which will also contain tools for strategic management and institutional practice as well as useful resources. The results of the 2 conferences and the report should be presented at a session at the IMHE 2012 General Conference on Attaining and Sustaining Mass Higher Education, Paris, France, 17-19 September 2012. www.oecd.org/edu/imhe/generalconference.

Posté par pcassuto à 12:32 - - Permalien [#]


18 avril 2012

Dispatches from South Africa: the case for vocational training

The Guardian homeYouth unemployment rates are worryingly high, yet education policy and culture make higher education a priority for students, says Sarah Emily Duff.
The end of the first week of teaching in the South African academic year is an experience that any academic at any university around the world would recognise: the chaos of finding timetables and new lecture venues; the inevitable problems with IT and parking spaces; the long queues at university bookshops; and in the midst of all this, a new group of anxious, happy, first-year students. They too are like first-year students anywhere. But in South African terms, they are deeply unusual. In January, Angie Motshekga, the minister for basic education, announced with some fanfare that 70.2% of the pupils who sat the examinations for the national senior certificate – usually referred to as matric – passed. In a country with high levels of deprivation and poor resource allocation, this appears to be a magnificent achievement.
Unfortunately, the celebrations hid a few worrying facts. In 2011, according to the well-respected NGO, Equal Education, there was an 8% drop in the number of pupils taking the exam, and of the 923,463 pupils who began grade 1 in 2000, only 496,090 took matric in 2011, meaning that nearly half dropped out during their school career. When measured against all those who began school in 2000, the real matric pass rate falls to 38%. Moreover, of the 70.2% who did pass, only slightly less than a quarter of these achieved marks high enough to qualify for university entry. The tragedy is that even though such a small proportion of school leavers have the marks to enter university, there are not enough places to go around. Last month, a stampede at the University of Johannesburg killed the mother of a potential student, and injured several other people. Thousands of parents and prospective students had turned up to register – in all, around 85,000 students applied for only 11,000 places.
The government has announced measures to further open up access to higher education. In his state of the nation address, president Jacob Zuma announced the building of two new universities, and minister for higher education and training, Blade Nzimande, has committed to expanding the whole further and higher education sector. I'm lucky to work at a university which attracts the best students in South Africa, but, even so, many first-year students aren't properly prepared. Here and at other universities, academics have to make up for the poor preparation for tertiary education in schools. I feel strongly that a lot of students shouldn't be at university in the first place – that they should have gone on to further education and training (FET) colleges where they would have received an education more narrowly focused on preparing them for the job market.
The crux of the issue is that despite the fact there are about 600,000 unemployed graduates in South Africa, university education is seen as the only pathway to employment. I would rather the department of higher education and training invested in FET colleges – expanding access to their campuses, improving the quality of their diplomas, and providing scholarships to those who can't afford tuition fees.
As an academic, I am torn between wanting to help my students do well, and pursuing my own research. I can only earn research funds by publishing, and I can't publish with a heavy teaching load. I can't teach students how to study independently, use a library, do research, and write essays without sacrificing my own research time. This dilemma becomes even more fraught as universities are placed under even greater pressure by the higher education department to produce more graduates, to ensure as many students as possible complete their degrees. Getting students to pass requires more input from me, even though my research-oriented university rewards me for doing research.
So do we continue failing students who don't make the grade? Or do we drop our standards and allow as many to pass as possible? Given that 7.5 million South Africans are unemployed, I don't think we should even be arguing about university entrance at the moment. We should be fixing our education system, and making affordable, good quality vocational training, which could conceivably lead to university education, more easily available.
Sarah Emily Duff is an NRF postdoctoral research fellow at Stellenbosch University, South Africa. She writes a blog on food history and tweets @sarahemilyduff. You can email her here.

Posté par pcassuto à 21:21 - - Permalien [#]

07 avril 2012

Director Generals meeting in the area of vocational education and training

http://eu2012.dk/en/Meetings/Conferences/Apr/~/media/Images/Settings/Logos/EU2012_Logo_EN.ashx22/04/2012 to 24/04/2012 Copenhagen, Denmark.
Up to the conference on vocational education and training the Directors General in this field will meet and discuss – among other things – the cooperation between VET and the business sector. In addition to this, the meeting contains a follow-up to the Copenhagen Process that was adopted in 2002 and constitutes the framework for the cooperation in the area of vocational education and training in the EU.
The Directors General of vocational education and training will meet and discuss – among other things – the cooperation between VET and the business sector.
In addition to this, the meeting contains a follow-up to the Copenhagen Process that was adopted in 2002 and constitutes the framework for the cooperation in the area of vocational education and training in the EU.
Contact:
Jan Reitz Jørgensen, Ministry of Children and Education
Tel: +45 33 92 5 695, email: Jan.Reitz.Joergensen@uvm.dk.
http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/EN/Images-ContentManagement/ELGPN-logo-print_rdax_250x119.jpgMeeting in the European Lifelong Guidance Policy Network (ELGPN)
24.04.2012 - 25.04.2012 Copenhagen - Denmark.
A meeting every six months in ELGPN, where the Network’s working plan is to be discussed. At this meeting a decision on form and contents must be made regarding the Network’s final report of the programme period 2011-12.
Contact:

Steffen Jensen, Danish National Education Agency
Tel. +45 33 92 51 35, email: Steffen.Jensen@udst.dk.

Posté par pcassuto à 15:46 - - Permalien [#]

19 février 2012

Vocational students face exploitation in sweatshops

http://enews.ksu.edu.sa/wp-content/uploads/2011/10/UWN.jpgBy Yojana Sharma. Overseas non-governmental organisations have been raising the alarm over worker exploitation in factories in China that produce the Apple iPad and other consumer electronic products. A new report by a Hong Kong-based labour organisation has found that many of the exploited are students working as interns as a compulsory part of vocational courses.
Rapid growth in vocational education in China has led to a huge army of underpaid and routinely exploited interns for factories and businesses, according a report published last month by China Labour Bulletin (CLB) titled The Mass Production of Labour: The exploitation of students in China’s vocational school system.
More than nine million students graduated from China’s vocational schools and colleges in 2010, according to the latest official figures. A similar number of vocational students were employed that year as interns in factories and other workplaces as part of their education, CLB said.
“In many ways, vocational schools are seen as only serving the interests of businesses looking for cheap and disposable labour,” it claimed.
In one case reported by Shanghai Daily last August, Ganxi College in Jiangxi province took some 140 students to Shanghai to work as summer interns on an assembly line in a computer manufacturing company. Most worked night shifts, usually six days a week, unpaid. The case came to light when they demanded payment.
CLB looked in detail at media reports of forced internships from 2008 to 2011 involving 62 schools and factories. “The reports came from just about every central and coastal province,” it said.
More than half the cases involved tertiary-level vocational schools rather than secondary vocational schools, with internships lasting from 40 days to one year.
Better employment prospects
The government’s 10-year State Education Reform and Development Blueprint states that the development of vocational education is now a “national necessity”, and the sector has been heralded as a success by government officials as unemployment levels are lower for vocational school graduates compared to university graduates.
In 2010, the official employment rate of vocational school graduates was 96.6%, up 1% from the previous year and higher than the 91% employment rate of higher education graduates during the same period. The trend in 2011 was similar.
But reports of abuses have become so widespread that increasingly families shun vocational schools and colleges in favour of academic degrees. Many parents see vocational education as “nothing more than a conveyor belt supplying factories with cheap labour,” the report said. As a result, a number of vocational schools have had recruitment difficulties in recent years.
Foxconn’s use of interns
The perception of widespread exploitation is borne out by research conducted by labour groups like CLB and the Hong Kong-based non-profit Students and Scholars Against Corporate Misbehaviour (SACOM). It has investigated the use of cheap labour, including student interns, by factories in China, particularly at Foxconn, a Taiwan-owned electronics giant that produces the Apple iPad, the Amazon Kindle reader and products by Nokia and other well-known Western brands. Foxconn exploys almost a million workers in different parts of China and SACOM estimated that up to a third of the workforce at some Foxconn facilities were student interns. The company has disputed this figure, saying the proportion of interns has never exceeded 15% of workers. According to SACOM, Foxconn uses student interns possibly to keep down costs as its profit margins have been falling over the years, and to maintain competiveness in the industry.
The issue of exploitation of workers at Foxconn has been raised internationally by labour organisations in recent weeks, “but numerous other cases [involving other companies] have been reported over the past few years, and it would be safe to assume that there is some degree of force or compulsion in internships at many vocational schools across China,” CLB said.
“Employers want vocational schools to provide both a steady stream of well-trained graduates to meet their long-term development plans, and a regular supply of interns to meet their short-term demands for cheap, flexible labour as and when required,” the report said.
Forced internships
In addition, CLB found that the incidence of ‘forced internships’ has been rising.
“The declining numbers of young workers entering the workforce, high economic growth and increased employment opportunities across China over the last few years have combined with low wages to create severe labour shortages in several regions and industries,” according to the CLB report.
“The shortages have in turn placed additional pressure on vocational schools to meet businesses’ demand for labour. This pressure has been one of the key reasons why incidences of forced internships have increased.”
A common complaint is that vocational institutions force students to intern at designated factories.
“It is alleged that if students refuse to accept the placement, schools threaten to withhold their diploma. Some schools have reportedly charged students with absenteeism, made the designated placement a necessary course credit, or even held exams inside the factory in a bid to ensure students participate in the internship,” CLB said.
And some local governments may have been have been complicit in urging vocational schools to provide local businesses with a steady stream of interns to make up for employee shortfalls. The official China Daily newspaper reported in 2010 that the provincial government of Henan played a key role in sourcing up to 100,000 interns for Foxconn, and that some 119 vocational schools in Chongqing had also pledged a steady supply of interns to the company.
Common complaints
By far the most common complaints of exploitation of students were excessive working hours and poor pay. But another well-documented complaint, clearly stated by students from 16 of the schools examined by CLB and SACOM, was that their internships bore no relationship to their field of study. In one example, students studying road and bridge construction and maintenance were told to help with security checks in Shenzhen subway stations during the University Games in August 2011. A group of pharmacy students from Liaoning were told to package lighters in Jiangsu, while a recent SACOM report showed that interns working on the factory floor at Foxconn had been studying several different majors, many unrelated to their work.
CLB talked directly to 22 institutions and found that nearly half had a well-established partnership with local businesses or factories in other provinces. In these cases it was not unusual for schools to deduct a ‘commission’ from the interns’ salaries or get paid directly by factories for providing cheap labour, even though this is in direct violation of laws governing internships by vocational students, CLB said. The law also states that interns should be paid a reasonable salary but few students considered their remuneration to be ‘reasonable’. Other students also complained of having to pay tuition fees while working on the factory floor.
Foxconn has said in a statement that “compensation levels for interns are equivalent to that of basic workers and higher than the government-regulated levels and the average internship period is between two and six months.”
Apple’s CEO Tim Cook said last week that the company “takes working conditions very seriously”. It agreed last month to allow inspections by the Fair Labour Association, which has offices in Washington, Geneva and Shanghai, following reports that employees were overworked and underpaid in Foxconn factories in China.

Posté par pcassuto à 10:24 - - Permalien [#]

The Torino Process

http://www.etf.europa.eu/webatt.nsf/0/710C5F98BD18D621C12579980054EEED/$File/The%20Torino%20Process.pngEvery two years the European Training Foundation invites its partner countries to review the state of their vocational education and training (VET) policies and systems (the first round of the reviews was carried out in 2010 and 22 of ETF's 29 partner countries participated). This paper provides an introduction to the process, its analytical framework, a list of indicators and their definitions. Download The Torino Process.
Introduction
In 2010 the European Training Foundation (ETF) launched the first round of the Torino Process, in which 22 of its 29 partner countries participated. In May 2011 the ETF organised a conference entitled ‘The Torino Process – Learning from Evidence’, which brought together over 250 stakeholders from all ETF partner countries, EU institutions, EU member states and the international community. In the final Declaration (see Annex 2), conference participants welcomed the Torino Process approach, endorsed the findings from the first exercise, including a number of common priority areas and short-term actions, and encouraged the ETF to work further to build capacity in evidence-based policy making. In addition, partner countries confirmed their interest in taking part in the next round of the Torino Process.
1.1 WHAT IS THE TORINO PROCESS?
The Torino Process is a participatory process leading to an evidence-based analysis of vocational education and training (VET) policies in a given country.
The Torino Process is carried out in order to build consensus on the possible ways forward in VET policy and system development. This includes the determination of the state of the art and vision for VET in each country or, after a given period, an assessment of the progress that countries are making in achieving the desired results.
The added value of the Torino Process lies in the fact that it embeds VET within the socioeconomic context, and ensures that the analysis is informed by relevant evidence and takes place through structured dialogue. In this respect, the ETF helps countries to gather information from different sources of evidence and fosters policy dialogue.
More specifically, the Torino Process is a vehicle for:
- developing a common understanding of a medium-term vision, priorities and strategy for VET development, exploring possible options for implementing this vision and/or making further progress;
- designing and evaluating home-grown and affordable VET policies, based on evidence or knowledge and collaboration;
- updating the analyses and achievements at regular intervals;
- providing opportunities for capacity development and policy learning within and among partner countries and with the EU;
- empowering countries to better coordinate the contributions of donors to achieving agreed national priorities.
In addition, the Torino Process informs the ETF’s recommendations to the EU’s external assistance instruments and serves as a basis for the design of the ETF’s support strategy to partner countries.
The Torino Process has been inspired by policy assessment processes at EU level, notably the Copenhagen Process in VET and the 2010 Bruges Communiqué. Indeed, the Torino Process in partner countries complements the review of progress towards the common EU VET policies, objectives and tools under the Bruges Communiqué. This complementarity facilitates mutual learning between the EU and partner countries.
The Torino Process is founded on four principles.
- Ownership of both the process and the results (final report) by the partner country’s policy leaders and stakeholders. This includes seeking complementarity between the Torino Process and the national policy agenda and/or other relevant processes.
- Broad participation in the process by relevant stakeholder groups, including parliamentary committees, policy leaders, social partner representatives, school managers, teachers, local authorities, company representatives, researchers and civil society representatives. This provides the basis for reflections and consensus building by local actors, thus making the connection between policy analysis and agreements about policy choices and implementation.
- A holistic approach, using a broad concept of VET for both young people and adults and adhering to a system approach, taking into account not only the system elements and how they communicate, but also how the VET system responds to the economic and social environment in which it operates. The Analytical Framework comprises the policy vision for VET, an analysis of the external and internal efficiency of the system, and governance and financing issues.
- An evidence or knowledge-based assessment, which is seen as essential for countries to make informed decisions about policy developments and to measure progress.
Evidence can take many forms, such as experience and evaluation of practice, the results of scientific analyses, quantitative and qualitative research, basic and applied research, and the development of statistics and indicators. Education and training are part of the diverse cultural traditions and identities of countries and they interact with a web of other policies. In these circumstances, there can be no simple prescriptions about what makes good policy or practice. This makes it all the more important to know as much as possible about what works, for whom, under what circumstances and with what outcomes (European Commission, 2007) Download The Torino Process.

Posté par pcassuto à 00:00 - - Permalien [#]


01 février 2012

Experts say loan plan for vocational diplomas will increase students' payments

http://resources2.news.com.au/cs/australian/paid/images/sprite/logos.pngBy Julie Hare and John Ross. JULIA Gillard's plan to introduce income-contingent loans for vocational diplomas is likely to dramatically increase what students pay.
And they say the plan will have little or no impact on skill shortages.
Leesa Wheelahan, an expert in vocational education, said colleges would take advantage of the loans to boost fees for students.
Victorian diploma fees have tripled to $2500 since the state implemented similar reforms in 2008, making them the most expensive government-subsidised diplomas in Australia. Government-subsidised advanced diploma fees cost $990 a year in Tasmania, $1212 in Western Australia, $1350 in the ACT and $1570 in NSW. At the same time there are questions over whether the Victorian reforms have increased student numbers, or simply shifted private, fee-paying students on to the public purse.
Phil Lewis, a professor in labour market economics, said the Prime Minister's plan would be unlikely to affect skill shortages.
"On the margins it may help poor kids who may have been put off by the upfront fee,"Professor Lewis said.
Pat Forward, national TAFE secretary for the Australian Education Union, was also concerned the move would simply shift the burden of cost.
She said many VET students were debt averse and would be wary of a HECS-style scheme. "They tend to be working-class kids and they are not confident that training will lead to better jobs," she said.
But TAFE Directors Australia said the move would elevate the status of vocational training.
"This will really give career counsellors a big change in their approach," said chief executive Martin Riordan.
The government is offering an additional $1.75 billion on condition the states agree to the loans and guarantee students subsidised places up to certificate III level.

Posté par pcassuto à 22:00 - - Permalien [#]

30 janvier 2012

VET: growing and popular despite mixed outcomes

http://savevca.org/wp-content/uploads/2010/04/the-australian_logo1.jpgBy Stephen Matchett. Funding of vocational education is creating inconsistencies with the funding of higher education. LESS than half the unemployed people who completed a government funded training qualification in 2010 found work, according to the Productivity Commission's report on government services, released this morning.
Some 46 per cent found employment after their course, with 44 per cent unemployed and nearly 9 per cent describing themselves as out of the workforce.
And the number of unemployed helped into work by a course dropped by 8 per cent between 2006 and 2010.
The findings are part of the Commission’s comprehensive report on the $4.9 billion state and federally funded training system, which provided courses to 1.4 million people in 2010. A further 400,000 people studied with private providers.
Declining student outcomes confirm this finding. In 2010 nearly 59 per cent of publicly funded vocational education and training graduates, “indicated they had improved their employment circumstances after completing their course,” down more than 5 per cent since 2005.
Despite the declines in employment outcomes an overwhelming majority of VET graduates said they were satisfied with the quality of courses they completed and the publicly funded system expanded significantly last decade. Between 2005 and 2009 the number of completed VET qualifications grew by over 30 per cent. Around 80 per cent of employers in contact with the VET system are also satisfied.  
The findings are part of the Commission’s comprehensive analysis of state and commonwealth funding of the training system.
The mix of VET subjects studied approximates what is popular in the university system with nearly 30 per cent of publicly funded training system students in management and commerce subjects. A further 17 per cent were in “society and culture with 15 per cent in engineering and nearly 9 per cent in food and hospitality. 

Posté par pcassuto à 23:26 - - Permalien [#]

15 janvier 2012

Universities and a vocational economy: why we should rethink HE's role

http://static.guim.co.uk/static/894d5be2fd27175b6273c0b4d3966c55a95bac8a/common/images/logos/the-guardian/professional.gifThe debate around Lord Glasman's call for a 'vocational economy' highlights a need for universities need to be more articulate about their effects, says GuildHE's Andy Westwood.
Lord Glasman's New Statesman article has generated mass headlines and commentary on Ed Miliband's leadership of the Labour Party – in his words "no strategy, no narrative and little energy". Glasman points to a series of radical policies that Miliband should adopt if he wants a better reception in 2012. One is what he calls the building of a "vocational economy" and the tough choices this demands for higher education policy. He repeats what he said at Labour's Conference last year, namely the shutting down of half of our universities and replacing them with vocational training institutions that will help to revive apprenticeships, skilled jobs and manufacturing. Like many on the left and right, he obviously believes that too many people go to university and that New Labour's obsession with the 50% target came at the expense of vocational education, apprenticeships and craft-based skills.
It was, though, a Conservative government that ended the binary divide between universities and polytechnics two decades ago, creating the biggest expansion in new universities since the Robbins report in the 1960s. In 1997 Labour continued this growth by accepting Ron Dearing's recommendations of at least a 45% participation rate, with an eventual 50% target. The political narratives of social mobility and global economic change lay behind the expansion of both numbers and institutions. But alongside the script lay two deeply fundamentalist beliefs – first that the global knowledge economy demanded increasing numbers of skilled workers and second that building human capital was a better option than interfering in markets or designing industrial policy.
By and large, many in higher education still feel and act in the same way today. More and more, graduates and research are both economic and social goods – and it's not a university's primary role to interfere too much in how or whether they are deployed successfully. But today the sector, the economy and the political debate all look a little different. Mass higher education is no longer affordable on either the Robbins or Dearing models. And yet both politics and economics demand the impact of higher education like never before. The innovation and research strategy puts universities at the heart of the government's plan for growth and, like Glasman, in its hopes for rebalancing the economy.
But for many it's not really up to a university to see that this actually happens in local or national economies – that's usually for others to think about and deliver. Labour and Conservative ministers (and now add Lib Dems) have all thought the same about both education and the economy – that it's not their responsibility to plan how human capital might be utilised. It's understandable (and perhaps convenient) because that has been the economic, market-based orthodoxy of most of the past 30 years – as far back as Robbins's time. Most of the evidence suggests that it still has some validity – graduates still earn more and are significantly more likely to be in work.
But this rather aloof, or at best semi-detached, view of the economy and the role of higher education institutions is increasingly out of date. Universities need to be more active and articulate about their effects and demonstrate clearer, more tangible effects on business, communities and on society as a whole. I'd call it a responsibility of any institution or sector that is and wants to be at the heart of growth. Tim Wilson has a chance to reignite this debate when he publishes his report in a few weeks' time. But in higher education, we all have a responsibility to encourage more innovation, more investment, more mobility, more active and prosperous communities and yes, more people with degrees. Unfortunately, not enough other people readily agree.
Of course, this takes us back to Lord Glasman and why he and others are wrong. Yes we need more emphasis on high-level skills and new types of vocational training. But it won't be achieved by re-establishing a "sheep and goats" system of higher education. Nor will it drive a fairer or possibly any other kind of economic growth. His retro argument misunderstands both the value of innovation and how it happens. Commentators as varied as Alfred Marshall, Eric Von Hippel and Peter Hall all see the effects of bringing different people and skills together and not trying to force them apart. Robert Reich (one of Bill Clinton and Gordon Brown's favourite gurus) describes this interaction as "geeks and shrinks", and emphasises the importance of public institutions in making it happen.
We need institutions that do this too – universities that consciously bring business and other organisations into their day-to-day activity. This drives innovation and value, both in and from, higher education. An era of active, connected and confident higher education that drives and grows economic and social change? A sector that combines high academic scholarship and technical learning – scientists and apprentices, designers and engineers, researchers and teachers – the classroom and the workplace? This can't be achieved by dividing institutions and students into different systems, missions or hierarchies. Nor can it be left to serendipity or to a hands-off, supply-side approach. That orthodoxy no longer rings true, if it ever did in the first place. Andy Westwood is CEO the of GuildHE.

Posté par pcassuto à 20:10 - - Permalien [#]
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18 décembre 2011

Formation professionnelle - La délégation générale à l'emploi et à la formation professionnelle

http://www.emploi.gouv.fr/images/encadre_politique-emploi.pngFormation professionnelle
En 2009, le système de l’orientation et de la formation professionnelle français a été largement rénové dans le sens d’une plus grande égalité d'accès à la formation. La loi prévoit notamment la création d'un fonds paritaire de sécurisation des parcours professionnels, un droit à l'information et à l'orientation professionnelle et une plus grande transparence de l'offre de formation.

Formation tout au long de la vie.
Ce dossier dresse un panorama complet des différentes formules permettant, tout au long de sa vie, de se former pour développer de nouvelles compétences, mener à bien un projet professionnel ou anticiper les évolutions de son emploi.
Développement de la formation des demandeurs d'emploi
Afin de soutenir l'accès à la formation des demandeurs d'emploi, une rémunération de fin de formation (R2F) va prochainement être mise en œuvre.
REMUNERATION DE FIN DE FORMATION
Cette mesure s’adresse aux demandeurs d’emploi auxquels une formation est prescrite par Pôle emploi en 2011 et dont la durée d’indemnisation au titre de l’assurance chômage ne permet pas de couvrir la totalité de la période de formation. Pour bénéficier de ce dispositif, les demandeurs d’emploi devront suivre une formation qualifiante leur permettant d’accéder à un emploi d’un secteur en tension, c’est-à-dire un secteur d’activité pour lequel des difficultés de recrutement sont clairement identifiées, au niveau local, à partir des statistiques publiques.
Le montant de cette aide est égal au dernier montant de l’allocation d’assurance chômage perçu par le demandeur d’emploi sans pouvoir excéder 652,02 € par mois. En outre, l’aide est cumulable avec les rémunérations issues d’une activité professionnelle compatible avec le suivi de la formation.
Ce nouveau dispositif conventionnel, qui pourra concerner 30 000 personnes pour un coût de 160 M€, sera cofinancé à parité par l’Etat et le FPSPP.
FICHES PRATIQUES FORMULAIRES
Cerfa 11971*03
: Demande d'admission au bénéfice des rémunérations des stagiaires de la formation professionnelle
Cerfa 12576*02
: Demande de prise en charge des cotisations de sécurité sociale des stagiaires de la formation professionnelle non rémunérés
Cerfa 13926*01
: Demande de remboursement des frais de transport des stagiaires de la formation professionnelle.

Action de Formation Conventionnée (pour les demandeurs d’emploi).
L'action de formation conventionnée par Pôle emploi (AFC) vise à faciliter le retour rapide à l'emploi, en permettant au demandeur d’emploi acquérir les compétences nécessaires et attendues sur le marché du travail. Cette aide est proposée à tout demandeur d’emploi, indemnisé ou non indemnisé, pour lequel le besoin de formation apparaît nécessaire.

Alternance/Apprentissage.

La formation en alternance facilite la transition école - emploi : elle permet en effet de se former à la fois sur les bancs de l'école et en entreprise. Ce dossier présente notamment l'un de ses dispositifs emblématiques, le contrat d'apprentissage, une formule d'insertion professionnelle qui permet à des jeunes d'alterner formation en entreprise et en centre de formation d'apprentis. Le contrat d’apprentissage est destiné à tout jeune âgé de 16 à 25 ans.

Contrat de professionnalisation.

Le contrat de professionnalisation s'adresse à tous les jeunes âgés de 16 à 25 ans révolus et aux demandeurs d'emploi âgés de 26 ans et plus. Outre une rémunération en pourcentage du SMIC pour les jeunes selon leur âge et leur niveau de formation, ce contrat ouvre droit, pour l'employeur, aux allègements généraux et dans certains cas à une exonération de cotisations patronales de sécurité sociale.

Droit individuel à la formation (DIF).

La loi du 4 mai 2004 a modifié les règles existantes en matière de formation professionnelle, créant notamment un nouveau droit pour les salariés : le droit individuel à la formation (DIF), qui permet au salarié de bénéficier de formations réalisées en dehors ou pendant son temps de travail. Vous trouverez dans ce dossier des informations précises et concrètes sur les bénéficiaires, les caractéristiques et la prise en charge financière de ce nouveau droit.

Formation compétences clés.

Cette formation est destinée aux demandeurs d'emploi, aux jeunes sans emploi, mais aussi aux salariés en insertion par l'activité économique ou en contrat aidé (sous réserve que l'employeur rémunère le salarié pendant la formation) et à ceux souhaitant que leur situation d'illettrisme ne soit pas connue de leur employeur.

Organisme de formation
.
Vous trouverez dans ce dossier des informations sur les formalités de création et de fonctionnement auxquels sont soumis les organismes de formation professionnelle et sur leurs obligations vis-à-vis des stagiaires. Il y est également présenté les procédures de contrôle des moyens financiers, techniques et pédagogiques mis en œuvre pour la formation professionnelle continue. Les formalités de création et de fonctionnement des organismes de formation.

Organisme paritaire collecteur agréé (OPCA/OPACIF)
.
Les entreprises sont assujetties à l'obligation de participer au financement de la formation professionnelle. Elles doivent verser tout ou partie de ces contributions à un ou plusieurs organismes collecteurs créés par les partenaires sociaux et agréés par l'Etat : ce sont les OPCA (organismes collecteurs paritaires agréés) et les OPACIF (organisme paritaire collecteur agréé au titre du congé individuel de formation). Dans le prolongement de la promulgation de la loi n° 2009- 1437 du 24 novembre 2009 et de la publication du décret n° 2010-116 du 22 septembre 2010 relatif aux OPCA, le paysage des organismes paritaires collecteurs agréés est cours de recomposition. De nouvelles modalités s'appliquent, qui s'appuient sur plusieurs textes structurants formant le cadre pour sa mise en œuvre au 1er janvier 2012.

Lutte contre l'illettrisme
.
En France en 2011, plus de 3 millions de personnes sont en situation d'illettrisme. 1,8 million d'entre-elles sont pourtant dans l'emploi, dont 900000 personnes qui ont plus de 45 ans. Pour les salariés, c'est une barrière importante à la mobilité et à l'évolution professionnelle. Pour les demandeurs d'emploi, c'est un frein considérable à l'insertion professionnelle. L'Etat et les partenaires sociaux, via le Fonds Paritaire de sécurisation des parcours professionnels, consacrent 86 millions d'euros pour le renforcement des savoirs de base dans le monde du travail.

Titres professionnels du ministère chargé de l’emploi
.
Un titre professionnel est une certification professionnelle délivrée, au nom de l'État, par le ministère chargé de l'Emploi. Vous êtes demandeur d'emploi; vous êtes employeur; vous êtes acteur de la formation professionnelle qualifiante; vous êtes partenaire pour la délivrance du titre professionnel du ministère chargé de l'emploi; vous êtes centre ou jury habilité par les DIRECCTE/ DTEFP: cette rubrique vous propose des documents utiles sur ces titres professionnels (TP).

Validation des acquis de l'expérience (VAE)
.
La VAE permet aux salariés de faire reconnaître leur expérience afin d'obtenir tout ou partie d'une certification (diplôme, titre à finalité professionnelle, certificat de qualification). Cette reconnaissance peut être fondée sur une expérience salariée, non salariée ou bénévole. Retrouvez des informations concrètes et détaillées sur la validation des acquis de l'expérience sur le portail de la VAE : www.vae.gouv.fr.
Sites thématiques: VAE, Orientation-Formation, AFPA, Centre Inffo, CEREQ, CNCP, Tableau de bord mensuel politiques d'emploi.



http://www.emploi.gouv.fr/images/dgefp.jpgLa délégation générale à l'emploi et à la formation professionnelle
Placée sous l’autorité du ministre du travail, de l'emploi et de la santé et du ministère chargé de l'apprentissage et de la formation professionnelle, la délégation générale à l’emploi et à la formation professionnelle (DGEFP) est chargée de proposer les orientations de la politique pour l’emploi et la formation professionnelle continue. Elle veille également à l'inscription de cette politique dans la stratégie européenne pour l'emploi et de lutte contre la pauvreté et l'exclusion sociale.

Présentation générale.

La Délégation générale à l'emploi et à la formation professionnelle (DGEFP) est chargée de la conception et de la mise en œuvre des politiques de l’emploi et de la formation professionnelle. Elle en construit le cadre juridique en concertation avec les autres départements ministériels et les partenaires sociaux. Elle conduit et coordonne la mise en oeuvre des dispositifs et en évalue les résultats. Elle veille à l'inscription de cette politique dans la stratégie européenne pour l'emploi et de lutte contre la pauvreté et l'exclusion sociale. Elle assure la gestion des programmes soutenus par le Fonds social européen en France.

Dispositifs emploi et formation.

LA DGEFP conçoit et met en oeuvre des politiques publiques pour soutenir les personnes en difficulté d'accès à l'emploi ou à la qualification professionnelle : jeunes peu qualifiés, personnes en difficulté sociale d'insertion, personnes résidant dans les quartiers difficiles, personnes issues de l'immigration, personnes handicapées, salariés licenciés, salariés âgés.
Les mots des politiques de l'emploi et de la formation professionnelle: découvrez les sigles et acronymes utilisés pour qualifier les dispositifs mis en place dans le cadre des politiques de l'emploi et de la formation professionnelle.
Des contrats de travail ou d'accompagnement proposés aux jeunes âgés de 16 à moins de 26 ans pour faciliter une première expérience professionnelle, acquérir une qualification, un vrai métier ou un diplôme de l'enseignement supérieur, intégrer le secteur public, créer son entreprise...

Des dispositifs pour favoriser l'accès de tous à la formation et au développement des compétences tout au long de la vie, dans le cadre de la sécurisation des parcours professionnels

Des outils d'appui à la création/reprise d'entreprise et d'accompagnement pour les publics qui créent ou développent leur entreprise afin de consolider leur projet dans la durée (actualisation en cours)

Une loi pour l'égalité des droits et des chances, la participation à la citoyenneté des personnes handicapées, fondée sur les principes de non-discrimination et d'accessibilité généralisée, afin de garantir aux personnes handicapées une réelle égalité d'accès à la vie professionnelle et sociale

Des dispositifs d'aide au reclassement des salariés licenciés pour motif économique offrant un statut spécifique et un accompagnement renforcé incluant des périodes de formation et d'activité, afin de déboucher sur un nouveau projet professionnel

Des outils permettant, dans le cadre d'un partenariat entre l'État, les partenaires sociaux et les branches professionnelles, la mise en œuvre d'une démarche d'engagement pour le développement de l'emploi et des compétences (EDEC) qui vise à anticiper les conséquences sur l'emploi des mutations économiques, sociales et démographiques et d'éviter les ruptures d'emploi

Des outils pour permettre aux salariés âgés de conserver leur emploi, se former pour retrouver un autre emploi, s'investir dans des projets nouveaux de carrière, préparer le départ à la retraite...

Des programmes européens pour soutenir l'emploi et développer la formation et l'insertion professionnelle


Organigramme.

Placée sous l'autorité du ministre du travail, de l'emploi et de la santé et du ministère chargé de l'apprentissage et de la formation professionnelle, la délégation générale à l'Emploi et à la Formation professionnelle est chargée de proposer les orientations de la politique pour l'emploi et la formation professionnelle continue.

Budget.
En 2011, le délégué général à l'emploi et à la formation professionnelle est responsable du programme n°102 "accès et retour à l'emploi" et du programme n°103 "anticipation des mutations économiques et développement de l'emploi" qui s'inscrivent dans le cadre de la mission "travail et emploi" dont les crédits sont ouverts par la loi de finances pour 2011 au ministre du travail, de l'emploi et de la santé.

Les Direccte.

Depuis le 15 février 2010, les nouveaux directeurs régionaux des Entreprises, de la Concurrence, de la Consommation, du Travail et de l'Emploi  conduisent  (en Métropole) les nouveaux services publics de l'Etat en région, tournés vers les entreprises et les acteurs socio-économiques. La création des Directions Régionales des Entreprises, de la Concurrence, de la Consommation, du Travail et de l'Emploi (Direccte) vise en effet à favoriser le développement des entreprises et de l'emploi, à améliorer la qualité du travail et des relations sociales et à assurer la loyauté des marchés et la protection des consommateurs.

Boîte à outils
.

Cette boîte à outils rassemble:
- les actes des séminaires ou conférences organisées par la DGEFP,
- les outils d'information produits à l'occasion du lancement de nouveaux dispositifs emploi ou formation professionnelle ou lorsqu'une communication particulière est mise en œuvre sur un ou des aspects des politiques de l'emploi.
http://www.emploi.gouv.fr/images/encadre_politique-emploi.png Kutsealane ettevalmistus
Aastal 2009, süsteemi Arendus-ja kutsehariduse Prantsuse ulatuslikult renoveeritud suunas suurema võrdsuse juurdepääs koolitusele. Seadus sätestab, et luua ühisfondi karjääri turvalisus, õigus saada teavet ja karjäärinõustamise ning suurem läbipaistvus koolituse pakkumist. Velle...

Posté par pcassuto à 23:25 - - Permalien [#]

L'enseignement professionnel est-il de trop?

http://www.humanite.fr/sites/default/files/humanite2010_logo.gifEntretiens réalisés par Dany Stive et Anna Musso. Jérôme DAMMEREY, cosecrétaire général du Syndicat national unitaire de l’enseignement professionnel (Snuep-FSU); Brigitte Gonthier-Maurin, sénatrice PCF des Hauts-de-Seine, rapporteur budgétaire pour avis sur l’enseignement professionnel; René LOUAIL, agriculteur, conseiller régional de Bretagne (groupe Europe Écologie-les Verts).
Rappel des faits Restriction de moyens, suppressions de postes, de filières et d’options: depuis plusieurs mois, l’État se désengage de l’enseignement professionnel au profit de l’apprentissage.
Sur fond de révision générale des politiques publiques (RGPP), le gouvernement réduit de façon drastique les moyens alloués à l’enseignement professionnel… et multiplie les déclarations vantant l’apprentissage, sous prétexte de régler le chômage des jeunes! Ainsi, concernant l’enseignement agricole et public, pas moins de 200 classes ont été fermées en cinq ans, alors que cette filière permet une insertion professionnelle des élèves à plus de 90%, tandis que plus d’un tiers des apprentis ne trouvent pas d’emploi à l’issue de leur formation… Dans un récent communiqué commun, la quasi-totalité des syndicats dénonce « la casse organisée de l’enseignement professionnel sous statut scolaire ». Pour garantir l’égalité des chances en France, il est urgent de réaffirmer la priorité d’un enseignement public, initial, laïque.
Les déclarations du gouvernement, du président de la République trouvent toutes les vertus à l’apprentissage… au détriment de l’enseignement professionnel. Est-ce fondé?
Jérôme Dammerey.
Je ne le pense pas. Plusieurs études montrent que l’apprentissage n’est pas de meilleure qualité, qu’il ne permet pas une meilleure insertion professionnelle durable ni de meilleures évolutions de carrière. Il ne permet guère de poursuites d’études après des niveaux de qualification V et IV. De plus, il coûte en moyenne 25% plus cher que les formations sous statut scolaire. Tout cela participe d’abord de la volonté du gouvernement de rapprocher de plus en plus l’école de l’entreprise pour répondre avant tout à la demande immédiate des entreprises, mais en plaçant au second plan la formation globale du futur citoyen et la dimension émancipatrice de l’école. Le développement de l’apprentissage organise le transfert de la formation de plus en plus de jeunes aux régions et aux entreprises et permet de supprimer des postes dans l’éducation nationale. Il participe au tri social et permet de délester l’éducation nationale des publics les plus éloignés de la culture scolaire. Cette politique participe à l’augmentation des inégalités scolaires fortement corrélées aux inégalités sociales.
Brigitte Gonthier-Maurin. À grand renfort de communication, le gouvernement fait de l’apprentissage le remède miracle face aux difficultés d’insertion des jeunes sur le marché du travail, jusqu’à avancer l’objectif de 800000 apprentis d’ici à 2015, quand ils étaient 425000 en 2009! Or sur quels éléments le gouvernement s’appuie-t-il pour justifier cette politique? Je rappelle que plus d’un tiers des apprentis ne trouvent pas d’emploi à l’issue de leur formation; que les ruptures de contrat concernent environ un quart des apprentis chaque année et atteignent dans certains secteurs comme l’hôtellerie et la restauration 37%. Enfin, le taux de réussite aux examens professionnels des apprentis est inférieur à celui des élèves ayant suivi la voie scolaire. Voilà pour la solution miracle. De plus, depuis 2005, le développement, à marche forcée, de l’apprentissage se fait sur le dos des moyens accordés à l’enseignement professionnel, par transfert de fonds de l’un vers l’autre. Et la réforme de la taxe professionnelle va renforcer ce déséquilibre en plafonnant la part de la taxe affectée aux formations professionnelles initiales, le surplus étant reversé pour le financement des contrats d’apprentissage, alors même qu’il capte plus de 50% du produit de la taxe.
René Louail.
Une société grandit si elle est capable de former ses hommes et ses enfants. Tirer vers le haut l’ensemble de ceux qui seront aux manettes demain est essentiel. La formation est un capital pour chacun, pour toute la vie. Nous avons donc besoin de développer de façon très large l’enseignement professionnel. Revenir sur cet acquis, dériver vers l’apprentissage comme le fait le gouvernement, c’est répondre à la demande du patronat mais pas de la société. Les besoins de la société ne sont pas nécessairement ceux des entreprises. Surtout, nous avons besoin d’une formation professionnelle d’une grande qualité, en adéquation avec les demandes, réactive sur les grands enjeux, notamment l’émergence de nouveaux métiers, capable d’évoluer et ouverte. Une formation qui soit en capacité de donner à ces jeunes l’ouverture indispensable pour que demain ils puissent changer d’activité, choisir l’entreprise dans laquelle ils souhaitent travailler ou créer leur emploi si c’est nécessaire. Tout cela va à l’opposé des choix du gouvernement actuel.
Pourquoi est-ce si important de conserver un enseignement professionnel et agricole initial, laïque et sous statut scolaire?
Brigitte Gonthier-Maurin.
Pour au moins deux raisons. D’abord parce que ces enseignements offrent une voie d’intégration professionnelle importante. Ils jouent aussi un rôle de remédiation offrant à des élèves la possibilité de reprendre pied et sens avec la scolarité et une poursuite d’études, ce qui n’est pas la vocation de l’apprentissage. Le statut scolaire est tout aussi fondamental parce qu’il s’inscrit dans un cadrage et des diplômes nationaux et participe ainsi à une réponse nationale de service public d’éducation. Cet enseignement doit donc être soustrait de la logique d’une orientation par défaut ou par l’échec.
René Louail. Concrètement, dans notre région, en Bretagne, sur les projets de financement, on ne traite pas de la même manière les différentes demandes de formation, on laisse glisser les projets entre les mains des chambres d’agriculture. Il y a eu, ici, par exemple, une mise en concurrence entre le lycée agricole de Guingamp et la chambre d’agriculture des Côtes-d’Armor. Le lycée a dû baisser ses coûts de formation. Il ne faut pas tomber dans ces travers. Les acteurs de terrain ne peuvent être les seuls interlocuteurs. Pour résister à cette dérive, il faut que se retrouvent les élus, les associations, les syndicats. La formation professionnelle ne peut se faire au rabais, en fonction des besoins de l’entreprise.
Jérôme Dammerey.
L’enseignement professionnel public est un service public qui garantit égalité d’accès, égalité de traitement en dehors de toutes pressions extérieures, égalité territoriale. Contrairement aux formations sous contrat de travail, il accueille l’ensemble des jeunes sans discriminations. C’est donc pour certains jeunes la seule façon d’avoir un accès à la formation professionnelle. Non seulement il faut le conserver mais il faut le développer, l’améliorer et permettre de meilleures perspectives en termes de poursuite et de réussite dans les formations professionnelles du supérieur. Or, depuis cinq ans, nous assistons à une accélération de la marchandisation de l’école. Celle-ci passe entre autres par l’affaiblissement du service public de la formation professionnelle initiale et la mise en concurrence des modes de formation. Les enseignants constatent, année après année, la dégradation des conditions d’accueil et d’études des jeunes ainsi que celle de leurs conditions de travail. Cette évolution ne va pas dans le sens d’une amélioration de ce service public. Il y a donc urgence à lui redonner la priorité pour le bien de tous.
La revendication de l’Association des régions de France (ARF) de piloter complètement les lycées professionnels, agricoles
et l’orientation est-elle une bonne chose?
Brigitte Gonthier-Maurin.
Un possible transfert aux conseils régionaux de la compétence sur les lycées professionnels, y compris les personnels enseignants, est en effet évoqué. J’y suis résolument hostile. Les ressources financières des régions sont trop minces et leur expertise pédagogique trop faible. En outre, tout ce qui est de nature à renforcer les inégalités sociales et territoriales entre les élèves doit être combattu. Sur ce point, la mise en œuvre du service public territorialisé de l’orientation, issu de la loi de 2009, qui a certes pris un retard considérable, doit être étroitement surveillée pour qu’elle ne puisse pas servir d’appui à la régionalisation complète des lycées.
René Louail.
Je trouve intéressant que les régions soient plus fortes. Les demandes exprimées dans le cadre de l’ARF sont normales et légitimes. Cela permet d’être au plus près des populations en ce qui concerne la formation professionnelle. Dans ce cadre, il serait bon qu’on élève le niveau de la formation générale. Ces dernières années, nous avons vu trop d’enfants de paysans s’inscrire trop tôt dans des filières professionnelles alors qu’existait déjà une carence de culture générale. En fait, nous avons formé des gens compétents au niveau économique mais nous avons formé des nains au niveau politique. L’apprentissage ne peut régler ce problème. La formation professionnelle doit être une ouverture sur quelque chose de large et nos lycées doivent donner une dimension politique, au sens noble du terme, à toute cette jeunesse qui sera amenée à choisir des orientations fortes et nouvelles, à partir d’une analyse macroéconomique qui n’aura rien à voir avec celle portée par les générations précédentes. Parce que les choses bougent rapidement, parce que la population augmente, parce que le changement climatique aura un impact, parce que nous avons des problèmes d’environnement, d’emploi.
Jérôme Dammerey. Il paraît prématuré de poursuivre une décentralisation dont on n’a jamais réellement fait le bilan. Certes, il y a eu un investissement important des régions, notamment dans la rénovation des lycées, mais l’on constate aussi que cet investissement a engendré des inégalités territoriales. De plus, les évolutions préconisées par certains membres de l’ARF pourraient déboucher sur une offre de formation définie uniquement en fonction des besoins locaux sans aucune cohérence nationale et, à terme, sur un recrutement local des enseignants en fonction des moyens que pourront ou voudront dégager les régions. Pire, les orientations globales du système éducatif pourraient être définies au niveau des régions. Ainsi, cela pourrait aboutir à la mise en place d’objectifs éducatifs et de formation différents d’une région à l’autre. Le taux de scolarisation des plus de 16 ans, le pourcentage de poursuites d’études dans le supérieur, etc., pourraient ainsi se décliner en fonction des besoins économiques de la région.
Comment améliorer et rendre attractives les filières professionnelles?
Brigitte Gonthier-Maurin.
C’est à cette question fondamentale qu’a prétendu répondre la réforme du baccalauréat professionnel en trois ans. Réforme brutalement généralisée par Xavier Darcos en 2009. Je n’étais pas opposée par principe à un parcours en trois ans, mais j’ai toujours plaidé pour le maintien en parallèle de l’ancienne voie via le BEP par crainte d’un accroissement des sorties sans qualification. Bilan aujourd’hui: des taux de redoublement élevés, jusqu’à 6% dans certaines académies, soit plus que dans les anciens BEP; le nombre de sorties du système scolaire a augmenté et atteint presque 15%. Si cette tendance se confirme, la réforme se soldera par un accroissement sérieux des inégalités. De plus, la réforme de la formation des enseignants a ouvert une crise majeure de recrutement en lycée professionnel. Or, justement, deux points me semblent fondamentaux pour revaloriser cette voie: sortir de l’orientation par l’échec et reconstruire une véritable formation initiale et continue des enseignants. On sait la place déterminante qu’occupe la maîtrise des savoirs dans la formation des citoyens. C’est donc dès le début de la scolarité que doit être pensé un système éducatif capable de conduire chacun au plus haut niveau de connaissances pour que l’enseignement professionnel ne soit plus un choix par défaut mais un choix d’adhésion.
Jérôme Dammerey. La question est complexe. Le Snuep-FSU pense qu’il faut mettre en place de réelles réformes permettant à la fois de garantir l’insertion professionnelle durable et d’améliorer les possibilités de poursuite d’études des jeunes. Il faut aussi entamer une révolution culturelle et sociétale afin de changer les représentations parfois fausses des métiers dans notre société. Il faut aussi améliorer les conditions de travail des certains métiers et plus globalement revaloriser les emplois de niveau de qualification V et IV tant en termes d’image que de salaire. Il faut partout participer à la réhabilitation de tous ces métiers, y compris dans l’éducation nationale, en nous attaquant au clivage entre travail manuel et travail intellectuel afin de faire évoluer positivement ces représentations.
René Louail.
Le choix professionnel se fait souvent trop tôt. Il est important de donner à ces formations une dimension d’ouverture sur le monde très large. On aura une jeunesse plus rebelle, et tant mieux. Il faut permettre à notre jeunesse, plus rebelle et c’est tant mieux, d’être avertie. On a besoin d’avoir une jeunesse qui soit réactive, en capacité d’analyser et de proposer des schémas différents de ceux imposés par le modèle économique dominant. Formons des citoyens qui deviendront plus facilement des professionnels compétents.
http://www.humanite.fr/sites/default/files/humanite2010_logo.gif Wywiady Danny Stive i Anna Musso. Jerome DAMMEREY, wspólne sekretarz generalny Krajowego Związku zawodowego jednostki edukacji (Snuep-FSU) Brigitte GONTHIER-Maurin, PCF Senator Hauts-de-Seine, sprawozdawca budżetu na opinię na temat kształcenia zawodowego; René LOUAIL, rolnik, doradca Regionalnej Bretanii (Grupa Ekologia Europy, Zieloni).
Ograniczenie tło oznacza redukcji zatrudnienia, struktury i opcji na kilka miesięcy, państwo wycofuje się z kształcenia zawodowego na rzecz uczenia się
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