18 avril 2013

Applying changes

Times Higher EducationA rising proportion of university applicants will have vocational qualifications. The sector must respond, says Mary Curnock Cook. Last month, a little-noticed consultation was launched by the Department for Education about vocational qualifications for 16- to 19-year-olds. The lack of fanfare is perhaps not surprising, but it is worrying given that - as the report itself sets out - nearly 50 per cent of those learning at Level 3 are now pursuing vocational qualifications. The number of students taking vocational qualifications at this level has trebled since the mid-1990s, while the number taking A levels has increased by just a fifth. And the consequence of this? “The proportion of students entered for purely academic qualifications has been in steady decline in recent years - from 70 per cent in 2008 to 51 per cent in 2012,” the report explains. Read more...

Posté par pcassuto à 21:25 - - Permalien [#]


14 avril 2013

Improving Vocational Education Training

Improving Vocational Education Training: Call for Book ChaptersImproving Vocational Education Training: Call for Book Chapters
EFQUEL invites contributions to a book about improving the quality of Vocational Educational Training (VET).
The call for chapters, which will examine the tools, frameworks and current practices necessary to enhance VET, is supported by the Teacher Quality Management project. As the book will address two different topics, participants are asked to tailor their submissions to the following categories:
Part I: Quality Indicators in Vocational Educational Training – Methodologies and Examples of use
Part II: Quality in Vocational Educational Training – ICT for Evaluation and Self Evaluation
Before composing a full book chapter authors need to submit a chapter outline. This way, potential duplications are avoided and even co-writing of related topics might be a result. Then, once the chapter outline has been accepted, authors will be invited to send in full, stand-alone chapters. These can be short reflections from practice (3-8 pages) or longer contributions meeting scientific standards of up to 20 pages in length. 
Publication is foreseen for August/September 2013 and will be presented at the EFQUEL Innovation Forum 2013 (26-27 September 2013). The publication will receive an ISBN and an open license. 
Key Dates for Authors
Submission of chapter outlines due: 15 April 2013
Notification of acceptance: 22 April 2013
Full chapter due: 19 May 2013
End of open discussion (your chapter can be accessed publically already): 1 July 2013
Blind review EFQUEL closed: 15 July 2013
Review – Procedure and Review Board
Submitted book chapters will undergo an open review by the scientific community and as well as a blind review by dedicated referees. These are members of the EFQUEL Network of Quality Professionals.

Posté par pcassuto à 02:15 - - Permalien [#]

Renewing vocational education and training to tackle skill mismatch

Cedefop - European Centre for the Development of Vocational TrainingRenewing vocational education and training to tackle skill mismatch: work-based learning and apprenticeship for all? New conference date.
This conference, originally scheduled for 26 April has been postponed until 12-13 June 2013.

But the conference’s focus remains the same. How can we reduce the costly mismatch between skills people have and those wanted by the labour market through:
- labour market information, such as Cedefop’s pan-European skill supply and demand forecasts, to help education and training to reflect more closely labour market needs to provide skills in demand;
- different forms of apprenticeship and work-based learning, particularly among young people who often lack work experience to complement their qualifications
The conference will also continue to bring together policy-makers from the European Union, Business Europe, the ETUC, UNESCO, Germany, Greece and Ireland to discuss these issues.
Join the debate see the conference link at: http://events.cedefop.europa.eu/.

Posté par pcassuto à 01:14 - - Permalien [#]

07 avril 2013

VET-Alert

Cedefop - European Centre for the Development of Vocational TrainingVET-Alert - Just published on Vocational Education and Training - April 2013 issue. VETAlert - no 4 - April 2013.
Cedefop's "VETAlert" for April 2013 is now available for download: http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/EN/newsletter/vetalert-newsletter.aspx.
VETAlert is a monthly selection of publications on vocational education and training available from Cedefop’s bibliographic database VET-Bib.
To receive this monthly review in your mailbox, please subscribe to VETAlert.

Posté par pcassuto à 13:43 - - Permalien [#]

2012 VET-Bib user survey results

Cedefop - European Centre for the Development of Vocational TrainingCedefop's Library and Documentation Service would like to thank all those who participated in the 2012 survey about the VET-Bib database.
According to the 504 responses received, the VET-Bib database is used rather frequently, its content is considered useful and the interface is user-friendly.
To make the VET-Bib database even friendlier, we have re-designed the user experience taking on board some of the comments received in the survey. In particular, we have ensured that there is a permanent VET-Bib banner on the home page of the Cedefop web portal. We have also reduced the number of clicks necessary to perform a search in VET-Bib.
Visit the re-designed VET-Bib Bibliographic Database. If you have any questions, please contact us at library@cedefop.europa.eu - Cedefop Library and Documentation Service.
Link: VET-Bib survey 2012.

Posté par pcassuto à 13:39 - - Permalien [#]


Renewing vocational education and training

Cedefop - European Centre for the Development of Vocational TrainingRenewing vocational education and training to tackle skill mismatch: work-based learning and apprenticeship for all? Cedefop conference 26 April 2013, Thessaloniki
Mismatch between skills people have and those wanted by the labour market is costly for economies and societies. Productivity is lowered and competitiveness lost. And unfilled vacancies coincide with high unemployment. Information, such as Cedefop’s pan-European skill supply and demand forecasts can help education and training to reflect more closely labour market needs to provide skills in demand and reduce skill mismatch. But how can such information be used and improved to adapt education and training for the benefit of individuals, society and the economy?
Many of our skills are acquired at work, including use of the latest technologies and processes. Can different forms of apprenticeship and work-based learning help to address skill mismatch, particularly among young people who often lack work experience to complement their qualifications? Cedefop has brought together policy-makers from the European Union, Business Europe, the ETUC, UNESCO, Germany, Greece and Ireland to discuss these issues. Join the debate see the conference link at: http://events.cedefop.europa.eu/VET-conference-2013/.

Posté par pcassuto à 13:36 - - Permalien [#]

05 mars 2013

Vocational postgrads put career-changers on course for a new job

The Guardian homeBy Carrie Dunn. Work-related master's degrees are on the rise as people seek skills that will help them find a new path. If traditional academic subjects leave you cold, your interest might be piqued by the increasing number of fascinatingly unconventional postgraduate courses available across the country. Vocational study is becoming more popular, with people sometimes using master's courses to move into a new career. Read more...

Posté par pcassuto à 21:05 - - Permalien [#]

17 février 2013

VET-Alert

VET-Alert - Just published on Vocational Education and Training - February 2013 issue
Cedefop's "VETAlert" for February 2013 is now available for download: http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/EN/newsletter/vetalert-newsletter.aspx.
VETAlert is a monthly selection of publications on vocational education and training available from Cedefop’s bibliographic database VET-Bib.
Please subscribe to VET-Alert and you will receive this monthly review in your mailbox.
  • VETAlert - no 2 - February 2013 PDF  Current issue
  • VETAlert - no 1 - January 2013 PDF.

Posté par pcassuto à 11:04 - - Permalien [#]

09 février 2013

Quality assurance procedures in the processes of certification, curricula setting, accreditation and training of trainers

publicationsQuality assurance procedures in the processes of certification, curricula setting, accreditation and training of trainers in European VET systems - 9. France
Information Gathering Exercise
Quality assurance procedures in the processes of certification, curricula setting, accreditation and training of trainers in European VET systems

IV. The results of the scrutiny of information already available

The main results of this study are presented in two parts: the first part, the “Matrix”, presents the results in a table format, using the “codes” presented below; the second part is the set of “Country Cards”, which function as endnotes for each Member State, where some summary explanations are given as answers to the questions raised in the matrix...
9. France
1. Assessment, validation and recognition of the learning outcomes – existence of mechanisms for formal and non-formal/informal contexts:
1.1. Who is responsible for assessment, validation and recognition of the learning outcomes?

The ministries responsible for initial and continuous vocational education are mainly those responsible for school education, higher education and employment.
Other ministries are also involved (Agriculture, Health, Sports etc. for their specific area).
For IVET – the Ministry for National Education is responsible for initial vocational education at secondary level. (Some other ministries also have responsibilities in IVET, such as the Ministry of Agriculture that is similarly responsible for professional agricultural training. The Ministry of Higher Education is responsible for Higher education.)
In this context the law has assigned to the Ministry of Education several duties:
– it draws up vocational diplomas/qualifications in consultation with professional bodies. (Vocational diplomas/qualifications issued by the Ministry of National Education are national and are worth the same whether they are acquired in initial education – IVET (schoolbased scheme or apprenticeship), through CVET or by a validation of professional experience. They are registered in the Répertoire National des Certifications Professionnelles (National Directory of Professional Certifications),
– it sets exam rules,
– it awards diplomas,
– it offers a range of courses to pupils and on-the-job apprentices,
– it recruits, trains and pays teachers,
– it monitors the quality of training,
– it is accountable for the results and the resources used.
For IVET and CVET – the Regions (regional governments) define and implement the regional policies of vocational training, for young people and for adults.
The French Regions are regional authorities that are run by elected officials.
Their remit is to plan and ensure the coherence of vocational training in their geographical area. Within this remit, they set out their policies according to their economic and social priorities, in consultation with the State and social partners.
As such they draw up the regional plans for developing vocational training which set out, in the medium term, in their geographical area, a coherent programme for developing courses of study for young people and adults. They also fund certain schemes for these groups according to their priorities. They are responsible for the construction, upkeep and facilities of upper secondary schools (lycées) as well as the funding of school transport.
For CVET – the Ministry for Economy, Industry and Employment is responsible for national regulation concerning vocational training for adults as well as for young people in the labour market.
The validation of non-formal and informal learning can lead in whole or in part, to a diploma, a title or certificate of professional qualification entered in the National Directory of Professional Certifications.
1.2. Where does the decision making regarding assessment, validation and recognition of the learning outcomes lie?

For IVET, concerning the Ministry of Education and its vocational diplomas/qualifications: the ministry is responsible for designing its qualifications/vocational diplomas – in consultation with professional bodies – and for designing the assessment, validation, recognition/certification process and procedures. Within this framework, training providers (with companies for alternate schemes such as apprenticeship) deliver training provision leading to vocational diplomas/qualifications. The training providers proceed to assessment, juries involving VET experts and professional bodies proceed to validation.
The ministry is responsible for recognition/certification: it delegates this final task to Rectors of Academies, who are at the head of the regional education authorities.
For CVET, process and procedures depend on different aspects: CVET can be delivered in order to gain a diploma, a title or certificate of professional qualification entered in the National Directory of Professional Certifications: the structures that produce those certifications include the Ministry of Education, of Higher Education, of Health, Sports, Agriculture, and also many other bodies.
But CVET can also be delivered to adults who wish to gain competences that do not lead to certifications.
Procedures will vary, depending on the aim of CVET and on the structures that produce certifications.
1.3. How are the stakeholders involved in the decision making process?

Stakeholders include the State through ministries, the social partners and the economic world and the Regions.
All those actors collaborate at different levels:
For IVET and CVET – at national level for the cooperation between stakeholders concerning VET policies: the National Council for Vocational Lifelong Learning. This Council also produces studies and reports. For qualifications recognised by the State – at national level: the National Commission for Professional Qualifications (CNCP). The commission is composed of ministries, social partners, Regions; its role is to manage the National Directory of Professional Certifications, to inform people, to check the complementarity of certifications.
-- For IVET and CVET – at national level for the creation of qualifications: Professional Consultative Commissions. Vocational diplomas/qualifications are drawn up and regularly reviewed in consultation with the professional and economical world in the framework of national bodies called «Consultative professional committees» (Commissions Professionnelles Consultatives). These committees are compulsory and enable consultation for the creation and renewal of qualifications and for the definition of the contents of qualification, including the definition of learning outcomes.
-- For IVET – at national level for the deliverance of training: the economic world also intervenes in the training deliverance since IVET relies on alternate schemes. IVET is delivered through apprenticeship but also through the school-based system which includes compulsory training periods in enterprises.
-- For IVET – at national level for the validation process: the economic world also intervenes in the validation process through the participation of professionals on juries.
-- For IVET – at regional level – regional employment and vocational training co-ordination committees (CCREFP) allow coordination and discussions between the stakeholders involved in VET in order to jointly intervene in scopes linked to employment and VET policies (state representatives, regional assemblies, management and labour organisations – social partners – and regional consular chambers: agriculture, trade and commerce and industry).
-- For IVET – at regional level – the French regions must plan and ensure the coherence of vocational training in their geographical area. Within this remit, they set out their policies according to their economic and social priorities, in consultation with the State and the social partners, taking into account the regional employment and vocational training co-ordination committees. As such, Regions draw up the regional plans for developing vocational training which set out, in the medium term, in their geographical area, a coherent programme for developing courses of study for young people and adults. The work should lead to contracts (Contrats de Plan Régionaux de Développement des Formations Professionnelles) signed between Regions and the State.
-- For CVET – at national level – the National Joint Committee for Vocational Training is in charge of ensuring that continuing vocational training’s agreements are duly applied.
-- For CVET – at sector level- the National Joint Employment Commissions and the National Interprofessional Agreements (the most recent one, from 2009, focused on vocational lifelong learning).
-- For CVET – at regional level – regional employment and vocational training co-ordination committees (CCREFP) allow coordination and discussions between the stakeholders involved in VET in order to jointly intervene in scopes linked to employment and VET policies (state representatives, regional assemblies, management and labour organisations – social partners – and regional consular chambers: agriculture, trade and commerce and industry).
-- For CVET – at regional level – the French regions must plan and ensure the coherence of vocational training in their geographical area. Within this remit, they set out their policies according to their economic and social priorities, in consultation with the State and social partners, taking into account the regional employment and vocational training co-ordination committees. As such, Regions draw up the regional plans for developing vocational training which set out, in the medium term, in their geographical area, a coherent programme for developing courses of study for young people and adults. The work should lead to contracts (Contrats de Plan Régionaux de Développement des Formations Professionnelles) signed between Regions and the State.
2. Curricula setting:
2.1. Is the curriculum based on standards and/or frameworks?

For IVET – for the qualifications of the State, including those of the ministry of Education), the national curriculum is based on the framework of the State.
For CVET – the frameworks are defined at sectoral, regional and local levels.
2.2. Levels of actions:
2.2.1. Where does the decision making regarding standards and/or frameworks lie?

For IVET, at national level – the Ministry of National Education regarding secondary education.
2.2.2. Where does the decision making regarding curriculum development lie?

For IVET, at national level – the Ministry of National Education regarding secondary education.
For CVET – at provider level.
2.3. Is the curriculum based on National Qualification Frameworks (NQF)?

Yes – for the curricula developed to obtain a certification registered in the National Directory of Professional Certifications.
2.4. Is the curriculum based on competencies?

Yes – for IVET and CVET.
2.5. Is a credits system in place?

If we consider that credits systems refer to ECVET or ECTS, a credit system is in place for higher education.
2.6. What is the role of practice? (Proportion and delivery).

For IVET delivered through a school-based scheme – about 15-20% compulsory work-based learning, depending on the type of programme and of diploma.
For IVET delivered through apprenticeship, about 65-70%.
For CVET, it depends on the demand, and on the sectoral, regional, local agreements involving, for instance, social partners or the regional authorities.
3. Accreditation of VET providers:
3.1. Who is responsible for the accreditation of VET providers?

For IVET – the State and the regional authorities.
For CVET – the providers evolve on a free market. They can be private or public. The 2009 law established the necessity to give transparency for those who buy training schemes and for citizens. CVET Providers must now give information about the objectives of training offered, about nature and time of provisions. They must deliver, at the end of the training periods, attestations explaining results of the evaluation and validation process. The law also intends to create a database of CVET providers, giving standardised information about providers, including their quality signals, such as labels.
3.2. Where does the decision making regarding the accreditation lie?

Idem
3.3. How are the stakeholders involved in the decision making process?

Stakeholders include the State through ministries, the social partners and the economic world, the Regions. All those actors collaborate at different levels:
-- For IVET and CVET – at national level for the cooperation between stakeholders concerning VET policies: the National Council for Vocational Lifelong Learning. This Council also produces studies and reports.
-- For qualifications recognised by the State – at national level: the National Commission for Professional Qualifications (CNCP). The commission is composed of ministries, social partners, Regions; its role is to manage the National Directory of Professional Certifications, to inform people, to check the complementarity of certifications.
-- For IVET and CVET – at national level for the creation of qualifications: Professional Consultative Commissions. Vocational diplomas/qualifications are drawn up and regularly reviewed in consultation with the professional and economical world in the framework of national bodies called «Consultative Professional Committees» (Commissions Professionnelles Consultatives). These committees are compulsory and enable consultation for the creation and renewal of qualifications, for the definition of the contents of qualification, including the definition of learning outcomes.
-- For IVET – at national level for the deliverance of training: the economic world also intervenes in the training deliverance since IVET relies on alternate schemes. IVET is delivered through apprenticeship but also through the school-based system which includes compulsory training periods in enterprises.
-- For IVET – at national level for the validation process: the economic world also intervenes in the validation process through the participation of professionals on juries.
-- For IVET – at regional level – regional employment and vocational training co-ordination committees (CCREFP) allow coordination and discussions between the stakeholders involved in VET in order to jointly intervene in scopes linked to employment and VET policies (state representatives, regional assemblies, management and labour organisations – social partners – and regional consular chambers: agriculture, trade and commerce and industry).
-- For IVET – at regional level – the French Regions must plan and ensure the coherence of vocational training on their geographical area. Within this remit, they set out their policies according to their economic and social priorities, in consultation with the State and social partners, taking into account the regional employment and vocational training co-ordination committees. As such Regions draw up the regional plans for developing vocational training which set out, in the medium term, in their geographical area, a coherent programme for developing courses of study for young people and adults. The work should lead to contracts (Contrats de Plan Régionaux de Développement des Formations Professionnelles) signed between Regions and the State.
-- For CVET – at national level – the National Joint Committee for Vocational Training is in charge of ensuring that continuing vocational training’s agreements are duly applied.
-- For CVET – at regional level – regional employment and vocational training co-ordination committees (CCREFP) allow coordination and discussions between the stakeholders involved in VET in order to jointly intervene in scopes linked to employment and VET policies (state representatives, regional assemblies, management and labour organisations – social partners – and regional consular chambers: agriculture, trade and commerce and industry).
-- For CVET – at regional level – the French Regions must plan and ensure the coherence of vocational training on their geographical area. Within this remit, they set out their policies according to their economic and social priorities, in consultation with the State and social partners, taking into account the regional employment and vocational training co-ordination committees. As such Regions draw up the regional plans for developing vocational training which set out, in the medium term, in their geographical area, a coherent programme for developing courses of study for young people and adults. The work should lead to contracts (Contrat de Plan Régionaux de Développement des Formations Professionnelles) signed between Regions and the State.
4. Training of teachers/trainers:
4.1. Who is a “teacher”/“trainer”?

IVET teacher / lecturer – educator working in the formal education system, civil servants (90%). They are usually trained in higher education institutions (Universities, ‘écoles normales supérieures’, certain universities or private institutions).
Teachers/trainers in apprenticeship – often ex-tradesmen and tradeswomen, experts in the field they are teaching; they may be employed on a contract (full- or part-time) in the Apprentice Training Centre, or they may be self-employed.
IVET apprentice master – employee responsible for training a young apprentice within the company; no specific training or qualification process is required.
CVET teachers and trainers – there is no national regulation governing the status of trainers or other training professionals. But there are different frameworks that can be developed.
4.2. Is the training of teachers/trainers based on standards/rameworks?

For IVET and CVET teacher/lecturer, the status and rank are determined by national entrance examinations for admission to the profession and regulated by the state.
4.3. What institutions /instances are in charge with training of teachers/trainers?

For IVET and CVET teacher/lecturer – higher education institutions.
4.4. What is the proportion “technical”/“pedagogical” in the training of teachers/trainers?
4.5. What institutions/instances are in charge with the accreditation of “teachers”/“trainers”?

For IVET teacher/lecturer – the State: there are national entrance examinations for admission to the profession (concours), regulated by the State.
Extra sources of information:
www.centre-inffo.fr – the website of the French national Centre for the Development of Information on Continuing Vocational Training. Download Quality assurance procedures in the processes of certification, curricula setting, accreditation and training of trainers in European VET systems.

Posté par pcassuto à 21:23 - - Permalien [#]

02 février 2013

More effective VET and lifelong learning policies

Publication coverBriefing note - More effective VET and lifelong learning policies: awareness raising, analysis and advice
Reform of vocational education and training (VET) in Europe is complex, especially at a time of economic crisis. Cedefop raises awareness and provides analysis and advice to policy-makers at European level and in Member States to help them decide on policies and actions. Cedefop’s work supports the European policy agenda for VET and lifelong learning.
Cedefop’s medium-term priorities 2012-14 guide its work. They reflect the European Union’s (EU’s) priorities for VET and include tasks that the Council of Ministers, European Commission, Member States and social partners have specifically asked Cedefop to carry out.
Cedefop’s impact depends largely on the value and trust stakeholders place on the authority, reliability and usefulness of its results. This depends on solid analysis and effective communication. Performance indicators show that stakeholders value Cedefop’s work and demand for its expertise is rising (Box 1).
Policies for modernising VET systems
Cedefop has a mandate to report on progress by Member States in implementing agreed European VET policy priorities under the Copenhagen process.
In 2012, Cedefop reviewed progress on the 22 short-term deliverables, a series of intermediate objectives that contribute to European VET policy’s strategic goals for 2020, set out in the Bruges communiqué. Cedefop’s review covered all EU Member States, Iceland and Norway (Box 2). It showed that many countries have addressed, at least partly, some short-term deliverables, particularly concerning young people. Countries continue to work to reduce early school leaving, for example through modular VET courses, validating non-formal and informal learning and better guidance. Developing apprenticeships and other forms of work-based learning is also a clear trend in many countries. However, VET is missing from many national innovation strategies and more needs to be invested in skills of VET teachers/trainers. In 2013, Cedefop will update its review and prepare for publication the next full European VET policy report in 2014.
Coordinating the Europe 2020 strategy through the European semester, the European Commission makes country-specific recommendations. Cedefop supports this process by providing evidence on the situation in Member States to monitor progress towards objectives and follow-up recommendations. Twice a year, Cedefop prepares overviews of VET developments in Member States, Norway and Iceland.
Cedefop cooperates closely with EU presidencies preparing VET events. In 2012, for Denmark’s EU Presidency Cedefop provided a snapshot on VET-business cooperation in Europe and for the conference ‘VET-business cooperation promoting new skills, innovation and growth for the future’, Cedefop delivered a keynote speech. For the Cyprus EU Presidency, Cedefop provided an update on policies to promote permeability, namely the ease with which people can move between different subjects and parts of the education and training system (1).
In the academic year 2011/12, Cedefop encouraged participation by social partners in 215 study visits. Some 2 458 participants from 33 countries attended, 96% of whom were very satisfied or satisfied with the visits.
In 2013, implementation of common European tools and principles will accelerate. Recommendations of the Council and European Parliament on the European qualifications framework (EQF), the European credit system for VET (ECVET) and the European quality assurance framework for VET (EQAVET) are completing the first implementation phase. Priority is to strengthen coherence among the instruments, in particular by ensuring that learning outcomes are applied consistently. Cedefop is working with the European Commission, Member States and social partners trying to ensure a long-term strategy on learning outcomes. Based on a survey of national practice, an analysis of the effects of learning outcomes on teaching and learning in initial VET, and experience of developing national qualifications frameworks, credit systems, curricula, assessment, quality assurance and validation, Cedefop will reflect on how learning outcomes are being applied across Europe in 2013. Results will be presented at a conference to debate the critical role learning outcomes play in education and training systems and learning pathways in the labour market.
The EQF and associated national qualifications frameworks (NQFs) are seen in several countries as catalysts for changing their education and training systems. NQFs use learning outcomes as the main principle for deciding the level of qualifications and by linking (referencing) NQFs to the EQF, learners and employers can compare levels of qualifications awarded at home and by other countries. In 2012, for the fourth consecutive year, Cedefop mapped and analysed progress. It reported that 35 countries are developing 39 NQFs (some countries, for example Belgium and the UK have more than one) of which 21 have been formally adopted. Seven countries are entering the early operational phase and four have fully implemented their NQFs. Some 15 countries have referenced their frameworks to the EQF and the rest should do so during 2013. Cedefop’s findings will feed into the European Commission’s evaluation of the EQF which will report in 2013.
Cedefop has, since 2010, monitored implementation of ECVET, analysing, in particular, the necessary conditions for its success. Cedefop’s 2012 report shows that, although Member States are increasingly committed to ECVET implementation, Europe is still far from a fully operational credit system in VET and most countries are giving priority to their NQFs. In 2013, Cedefop’s monitoring will be the basis for considering links between ECVET and the European credit transfer system (used in higher education), and will be used in the European Commission’s ECVET evaluation which will report in 2014.
Eight years after its launch in February 2005, 25.2 million people use Europass (a collection of documents available in 26 languages enabling people to present their qualifications and skills to employers across Europe in a standard format). The Europass website (http://europass.cedefop.europa.eu) managed by Cedefop had over 14.8 million visitors in 2012. More than 8.1 million Europass CVs were completed online in 2012, taking the total to over 24.7 million. In 2012, at the European Commission’s request, Cedefop developed the Europass experience document to record non-formal and informal learning acquired by people at home or abroad and the European skills passport, which provides people with a portable dossier, and which was launched in December 2012. In 2013, both will be improved on the basis of users’ feedback.
With the European Commission and Eurydice, Cedefop will continue to work on reducing early leaving from VET. A study with Eurydice is planned in 2013 on factors causing early school leaving and Cedefop will collect information on policies to tackle it.
Careers and transitions

Cedefop’s work on adult learning contributes directly to implementing European VET priorities as defined in the Bruges communiqué and the Council resolution on a renewed European agenda for adult learning.
The European year of active ageing encouraged debate on how learning can promote longer and successful working lives, despite being overshadowed by the need for urgent action to battle youth unemployment and continuing economic crisis. In 2012, Cedefop published Working and ageing, which considers benefits of, and barriers to, investing in learning later in life. In 2013, Cedefop will publish results of its study on how work-based learning can reintegrate unemployed adults into the labour market.
While much is known about initial VET, we know comparatively little about how rapid labour market changes affect continuing VET. Cedefop will analyse this issue with several country and sector case studies in 2013 with a fuller study following in 2014-15.
The recommendation on validation of non-formal and informal learning aims to help adults increase visibility of their skills and competences. Cedefop will present its study on use of validation of non-formal and informal learning in enterprises in 2013 at a joint conference with the European Commission. Cedefop will also prepare a second edition of European guidelines on validation and update the European inventory on validation. Further, Cedefop will publish its study on use of validation of non-formal and informal learning in European enterprises.
Its 2012 publication Loans for vocational education and training in Europe showed the differences in design and objectives of financing schemes and how some increase general participation in learning, while others seek to promote equity. Also in 2012, Training leave looked at how to overcome barriers to training due to problems with time, while Payback clauses in Europe – Supporting company investment in training looked at how the employer-provided training can be stimulated by reducing the risk of trained employees being poached by another enterprise. A joint conference in December 2012 with the European Commission ‘Adult Learning – Spotlight on investment’ discussed how to develop adult learning through more efficient sharing of costs and greater awareness of the benefits of training.
Recent evidence points to the success of work-based learning, dual VET systems and apprenticeships in promoting labour market integration for young people. Increasing numbers of apprentices is a Bruges communiqué objective. Germany’s initiative to set up the European alliance for apprenticeship was launched in December and Cedefop has been asked to play a role in its coordination. The alliance supports bilateral cooperation on how the principles behind dual VET systems can be introduced into various national systems and help young people to find a job. In 2013, Cedefop will examine financing models and private and public costs of work-based and dual VET in European countries to understand better the requirements to develop work-based models in VET.
Trainers are at the front line of initiatives to upgrade the skills of Europe’s workforce, promote lifelong learning, improve employability and reform VET. Cedefop will continue to coordinate with the European Commission the working group trainers in VET launched in February 2012. In 2013, Cedefop will analyse successful approaches to supporting the professional development of in-company trainers.
Supported by lifelong guidance, adults can make better decisions on education, training and work. In 2013, Cedefop will finalise its studies on guidance and age management strategies and integration of immigrants into the labour market.
Analysing skills and competences

Cedefop’s analysis of skill demand and supply, mismatches and imbalances supports the new skills and jobs agenda. Cedefop has also been invited to join the Global Agenda Council on Employment of the World Economic Forum together with the OECD, ILO, IMF and other world-leading experts and academia to address the jobs crisis and skill mismatch.
Cedefop skill supply and demand forecasts provide a pan-European picture of skill trends. In 2012, Cedefop published its latest forecast for 2020, which takes account of the economic slowdown that followed the financial crisis. It underlines that, although numbers of job opportunities have fallen, major trends, such as more skill-intensive jobs at all levels, job creation in services and the rising qualification level of Europe’s workforce, continue.
The EU Skills Panorama, launched in 2012 to improve access to European labour market intelligence, includes Cedefop’s forecast data. In 2013, Cedefop will update its forecasts and extend the time horizon from 2020 to 2025. Forecast data for Croatia will be added in July 2013, when it joins the EU.
Following the successful design and pilot of an employer survey on skill needs, Cedefop will, in 2013, prepare a European-wide employer survey to be launched in early-2014. The survey will investigate the demand for skills and emerging skill gaps.
In 2013, Cedefop will publish its research on how skill mismatch affects individuals, particularly vulnerable groups, (such as older workers, unemployed people and ethnic minorities) and labour market transitions. The results will provide new evidence on sectoral and cross-country differences in skill imbalances. A high-level conference will take place in autumn 2013 to debate priorities for policies to reduce skill mismatch.
In 2012, Cedefop published Green skills and environmental awareness in vocational education and training. It examines trends in employment, skill needs and training for selected occupations likely to be affected by development of a low-carbon, resource-efficient economy. In 2013, Cedefop will continue to work with UNEVOC, OECD, ILO, ETF and other international agencies in a body coordinating Greening TVET and skills development.
An efficient European agency
As tight budgetary framework conditions demand, Cedefop monitors carefully the use of resources. Cedefop uses activity-based budgeting and a performance measurement system with indicators on its impact, efficiency, effectiveness and relevance.
In 2013, the periodic external evaluation of Cedefop will be conducted by the European Commission. Cedefop will follow up its recommendations, as well as any findings and recommendations of the interinstitutional working group on EU agencies.
In 2012, Cedefop’s budget execution was, again, above 97%. Audits have not only confirmed their regularity, but also found that Cedefop procedures and controls are working well.
Cedefop’s size and the nature of its work, as well as considerable efforts over past years, leave little room for further significant efficiency gains. Despite a 2009 horizontal budget cut and zero-growth budgets in the last few years, Cedefop has been asked to take on new tasks. In 2013 and 2014, further requests include the Skills Panorama, an employer survey on skill needs, refinements on country-specific monitoring, and the European validation inventory. Existing tasks have also grown, notably policy reporting, support of the implementation of European tools and principles, and adult and work-based learning. Most of these are substantial and require medium-term resource commitments.
Download the Briefing note - More effective VET and lifelong learning policies: awareness raising, analysis and advice.

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