Human Resources Development Minister M Pallam Raju is on a visit here to influence Australian universities and vocational institutions to deepen ties with the Indian education system.
Apart from Melbourne, the minister will visit Sydney and is expected to meet officials of various universities and vocational institutions during his trip. Read more...
For many people with disabilities working and gaining professional fulfilment is only a dream, as apart from the usual problems with finding a job, they face additional barriers: not only physical and technical, but most often social. People with mental and cognitive disabilities are most affected by prejudices and social stigma – surveys reveal a 3 to 5 times higher unemployment rate amongst individuals with mental illness although the majority of them are able and willing to work. “Nobody is to be discriminated because of his or her disability!” This is one of the central statements anchored in the European legislation and leads to many measures that try to ensure that handicapped people have the same options and choices as non-handicapped people. A big issue is the accessibility to any area of life. People with disabilities have special rights - starting from early intervention up to rehabilitation care at any age. Although there are clear guidelines, and the law is well-intentioned regarding handicapped people, the reality often looks different. People are refused for flimsy reasons and have trouble finding a job, despite their high qualifications. Many don´t even try to enter employment, but live on the support of the state, which isn´t satisfying. Yet, even if potential employers are open-minded, many people with mental or learning disabilities lack the necessary social skills to get and maintain a job, especially in today’s competitive market. Read more...
This article gives key figures on continuing vocational training (CVT) in the European Union (EU). CVT corresponds to training during working time or being paid for at least partially by the employer (for instance evening courses).
It is one of the components of the more generic vocational education and training. Vocational education and training is training in skills and teaching of knowledge related to a specific trade, occupation or vocation in which the student or employee wishes to participate. This article does not tackle vocational education and training statistics in general and only focuses on employees of companies from the business economy: almost all economic sectors apart from agriculture, forestry and fishing, public administration and defence, compulsory social security, education, human health and social work activities.
1 Main statistical findings.
1.1 Training offer at EU and Member State level.
In 2010, two thirds of EU companies provided training to their employees — either CVT courses or other forms of training — in order to develop employees’ competences and skills and to increase the companies’ competitiveness (see Figure 1). At national level, the percentage of companies that provided training to their staff ranged from 23 % in Poland to 87 % in Sweden and Austria. Companies generally preferred to provide training through CVT courses that had been designed either by the company itself or by external providers, rather than to use other forms of training such as planned learning through job rotation, exchanges or secondments, participation in learning or quality improvement groups, or self-directed learning. Indeed, 56 % of EU companies provided at least CVT courses and 53 % of companies provided at least other forms of job-based training. When looking at individual countries, this propensity was particularly clear in France, where companies providing at least CVT courses were 26 percentage points more frequent than those providing at least other forms of job-based training, and in Spain (18 percentage points more frequent). In contrast, it was more common for companies to provide training through forms other than CVT courses in Cyprus (66% versus 48%), Malta (52% versus 38%), Slovenia (65% versus 41%) and the United Kingdom (75% versus 60%).
1.2 By enterprise size.
Company size is a factor found to influence the provision of CVT courses. The survey found that, across the EU, employees attended CVT courses more often if they worked in large companies: 49% of those employed by large companies (i.e. with 250 employees or more) participated in training courses, whereas 45% of those employed by medium-sized companies (i.e. with 50-249 employees) and 46 % of those employed by small companies (i.e. with 10-49 employees) did so (see Table 1). Participation rates were highest for employees of larger firms than for employees of smaller firms in most countries, including Bulgaria (56% versus 46%), Spain (62% versus 50%), France (56% versus 37%), Italy (57% versus 45%), Cyprus (61% versus 51%), Luxembourg (69% versus 53%) and Malta (66% versus 42%). In contrast, CVT courses were more frequently attended by employees in smaller firms in Latvia, Croatia, the United Kingdom, Romania, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Portugal, Germany, and Lithuania.
1.3 Costs and reasons for not providing training.
The overall costs incurred by a company for the provision of CVT courses were captured in the Continuing vocational training survey. These costs corresponded to total monetary expenditure, that is to say the sum of direct training costs and the balance between contributions to national or regional training funds and subsidies received.
Training costs for EU companies, excluding the participants’ labour costs, represented an average of 0.8% of all labour costs (see Table 2). France recorded the highest ratio in the European Union (1.5%), partly because of the balance between contributions to regional or national funds and subsidies received from other funds. When compared to companies in other countries, French companies tended to contribute to certain funds more than they received from others. The balance was 0.5% in France and in Cyprus, which is significantly higher than the European Union average (0.1%)...
1.4 Evaluating targets.
Participants were often assessed to establish whether the targeted skills had been successfully acquired. This policy was implemented in 57% of EU companies that provided CVT courses (see Figure 3). French companies providing CVT courses almost systematically assessed the acquired skills after the training session (91% of French companies that provided CVT). Cypriot and Austrian employers also assessed the acquired skills more often than the EU average (64% and 62% respectively)...
1.5 Participation rates.
In 2010, in the European Union, an average of almost 40 % of employees participated in planned CVT courses which took place away from their usual workplace, either managed by the company itself or by another training provider...
2 Data sources and availability.
Most of the figures presented here come from the fourth Continuing vocational training in enterprises survey (CVTS4). This survey gives an overview of the companies’ training policies in the European Union (EU) in 2010. It was carried out in the 27 EU Member States, and in Norway and Croatia...
The conclusions of the November 2010 Council underline the need for data on vocational education and training (VET) systems in the context of the Copenhagen process and of the important contribution it has to make to the Europe 2020 strategy ...
4 Further Eurostat information.
4.3 Dedicated section.
4.4 Methodology / Metadata.
4.5 Source data for tables and figures (MS Excel).
4.6 Other information.
5 External links.
6 See also.
In the EU27, two thirds (66%) of all enterprises with ten or more employees provided vocational training to their staff in 2010, compared with 60% in 2005.
The highest proportions of enterprises providing training were observed in Austria and Sweden (both 87%) the United Kingdom (80%), the Netherlands (79%), Belgium (78%) and France (76%), and the lowest in Poland (23%), Romania (24%), Bulgaria (31%), Latvia (40%) and Hungary (49%).
These data, published by Eurostat, the statistical office of the European Union, come from the Continuing Vocational Training Survey (CVTS), which is carried out every five years. The news release presents data from the fourth and latest survey, referring to the year 2010, which covered the 27 Member States and Croatia.
To know more
Continuing vocational training statistics.
These data, published by Eurostat, the statistical office of the European Union, come from the Continuing Vocational Training Survey (CVTS), which is carried out every five years. This News Release presents data from the fourth and latest survey, referring to the year 2010, which covered the 27 Member States and Croatia.
Download the Document Two thirds of enterprises in the EU27 provided vocational training in 2010.
Download Benefits of vocational education and training in Europe for people, organisations and countries.
Gras is one of a burgeoning number of private academies providing hands-on job training in India, filling a gap between government vocational centers and four-year universities. These schools — which offer short, practical, nondegree programs — have been growing since the early 2000s. Read more...
Renewing vocational education and training to tackle skill mismatch: work-based learning and apprenticeship for all?
Mismatch between skills people have and those wanted by the labour market is costly for economies and societies. Productivity is lowered and competitiveness lost. And unfilled vacancies coincide with high unemployment.
Information, such as Cedefop’s pan-European skill supply and demand forecasts can help education and training to reflect more closely labour market needs to provide skills in demand and reduce skill mismatch. But how can such information be used and improved to adapt education and training for the benefit of individuals, society and the economy?
Many of our skills are acquired at work, including use of the latest technologies and processes. Can different forms of apprenticeship and work-based learning help to address skill mismatch, particularly among young people who often lack work experience to complement their qualifications?
Cedefop has brought together policy-makers from the European Union, Business Europe, the ETUC, UNESCO, Germany, Greece and Ireland to discuss these issues.
Join the debate see the conference link at: http://events.cedefop.europa.eu/VET-conference-2013/en/.
The aim of the framework contract is to understand the phenomenon of drop-out and early leaving from VET in Europe and to analyse the role of VET in reducing early leaving from education and training. To this end, the contract includes 3 work assignments, namely: 1) Understanding the phenomenon of dropping out and early leaving from VET and investigating the relationship between VET and early leaving from education and training; 2) Analysing policies and measures to tackle early leaving from education and training through VET; 3) Identifying good practices and tools to support policy making at national and EU levels. The findings of this project aim to support the European Commission, Member States, social partners and other stakeholders in their effort to implement EU policies to reduce early school leaving and to achieve the EU target by 2020.
This call has been published in the Supplement to the Official Journal of the European Union 2013/S 076-126420 of 18/04/2013.
Deadline of submitting tenders: 04/06/2013 (17h00 for hand-delivered tenders).
Requests for additional information/clarification should be received by 27/05/2013.
The answers to such requests, if any, will be published under this banner, therefore please visit Cedefop's website frequently for updates.
If you are downloading these documents from our website, kindly send us an e-mail (email@example.com) notifying us.
Attachments: Tender Dossier - Early Leaving.
The publication contributes to the work of the thematic working group on the professional development of trainers in vocational education and training, which the European Commission set up in 2012 and jointly coordinates with Cedefop. Download Trainers in continuing VET: emerging competence profile.
The European Union will not resume growth driven by higher productivity and innovation without highly skilled workers who can contribute to innovation and entrepreneurship (European Commission; Danish Technological Institute, 2012). Companies do not only need new skills, the right competences and innovative thinking; where appropriate, the existing workforce must constantly update their knowledge, skills and competences to meet new demands and future changes. Training at the workplace plays an important role and is increasingly recognised as an efficient way to equip people with transversal and job-specific skills. It also contributes to the European 2020 headline target stipulating that, by 2020, 15% of the population aged 25 to 64 should participate in lifelong learning.
The quality and competences of trainers in continuing vocational training (CVET) and adult learning, as a condition for ensuring high quality workplace training, have been among the strategic objectives of European cooperation in vocational education and training (VET) (Council of the EU; European Commission, 2010). Enterprises in Europe believe that the EU can potentially play an important role in promoting competence development in enterprises and in ensuring better quality trainers (European Commission; Danish Technological Institute, 2012).
In this publication, Cedefop looks at examples of initiatives set up in the Member States on developing competence requirements for trainers in continuing vocational training and adult learning. Based on this analysis, an emerging competence profile of a trainer is proposed. We believe that this work can be a starting point towards establishing a competence profile of trainers, which has just been called for by the European Commission (European Commission, 2012).
This publication will also provide an input to the work of the thematic working group on the professional development of trainers in VET, launched by the European Commission in 2012. Cedefop jointly coordinates the group and provides its expertise towards developing guiding principles for the continuing professional development of trainers, one of the objectives of the Bruges communiqué. Christian F. Lettmayr, Acting Director. Download Trainers in continuing VET: emerging competence profile.
2.1.6. Qualification of a professional trainer of adults, France
The Association for the vocational training of adults (Association pour la formation professionnelle des adultes, AFPA) is one of the main providers of continuous professional training in France. AFPA training courses lead to a recognised vocational qualification, titre professionnel (TP). The qualification of a professional trainer of adults (Formateur/trice professionnel(le) d’adultes, TP FPA) has existed since 1997. It has to be revised every five years as part of quality assurance and was last revised in 2008. It is a broad occupational category essentially defined by trainers who ‘contribute, through their pedagogical and technical expertise, to the social and professional development of individuals and help them to access/maintain professional activity and/or employment’.
As with other AFPA qualifications, that for professional trainers of adults:
(a) includes a list of competences grouped into main domains of activity which correspond to independent certificates of professional skills and competences (certificat de compétences professionnelles, CCP). Two types of activities have been identified for the profession of a trainer of adults, corresponding to two CCPs that together form the TP FPA: CCP preparation and facilitation of training (préparer et animer des actions de formation) and CCP contributing to the elaboration of training and supporting learners on their learning paths (contribuer à l’élaboration de dispositifs et accompagner des parcours de formation);
(b) is registered in the national repertory of qualifications;
(c) is awarded by competent authorities at regional level (DIRECCTE) under the authority of the Ministry of Employment;
(d) can be either obtained through participation in a training course in AFPA campuses or through the nationally recognised procedure of validation of non-formal and informal learning (validation des acquis de l’expérience, VAE).
The competence framework is based on two documents regularly produced by the AFPA:
(a) the occupation, activities and competence framework (référentiel emploi, activités compétences, REAC), a report produced every five years by a specialised service within the AFPA in cooperation with a network of professional trainers of adults and experts in training course design (including representatives of in-company trainers) and taking into account sectoral dialogue developments. The report is then validated in working groups with social partners representing the sector, experts, Ministry representatives, etc. The document maps new developments in the profession, classifies the typical/main activities of trainers of adults and establishes the list of required competences for each of these activities. The latest update was in 2008;
(b) the certification framework (référentiel de certification, RC), developed on the basis of the REAC, a detailed description of the competences for each main activity and corresponding evaluation methods and standards/thresholds.
The RC is also validated by a tripartite commission, which includes representatives of the employers, trade unions, the ministries in charge of employment, education and industry and the CEREQ, Centre of Studies on Qualifications. The latest update took place in 2009. Target group The TP FPA and its competence framework are relevant for various categories of trainers including in-company staff. In the context of TP FPA, candidates can be:
(a) individuals, including in-company trainers, who seek to improve their qualification and, potentially, employment prospects;
(b) individuals supported by their employer, in most cases, as part of the company’s training plan, and using their individual right for training and training leave;
(c) groups of in-company trainers from the same company/training centre in the so-called ‘collective’ VAE supported by an employer.
In order to qualify, trainers must have a proven relevant professional experience of at least three years (including unpaid but relevant activities).
Main approach and activities
The TP FPA is accessible through AFPA representations in all regions of France, with several AFPA campuses. The AFPA provides information to potential candidates at local, regional and national levels and offers support to in-company trainers who wish to apply. Specialised VAE counsellors help candidates choose an appropriate qualification, reflect on and present their professional experience and prepare for the assessment. Guidance is provided in the form of collective workshops of 10 hours.
A candidate prepares a portfolio describing his/her professional experience, activities and acquired competences (dossier de synthèse de pratique professionnelle) and a written report on the specific training scheme that led him/her to develop the competences in question. A jury of professionals in the field then analyses the two and also interviews the candidate.
Candidates usually apply for the full qualification but the two CCP’s that comprise it can be awarded independently depending on the candidates’ competences. If only one CCP is awarded (the partial validation), it remains valid for five years, during which the candidate can undertake further training needed for the other CCP or can continue to acquire necessary professional experience and get it reassessed later.
The procedure requires a high level of candidate commitment and involvement, as it is based on reflection and self-assessment and is timeconsuming. The experience points to the need for more guidance and preparatory meetings with the candidates.
The AFPA regularly monitors developments in the sector through qualitative surveys, interviews and consultation to assess and maintain the relevance of the competence frameworks.
The competence framework of the TP FPA serves as a reference point for developing the course curriculum leading to the qualification and for evaluating candidate aptitudes at the final exam or in the VAE process. The framework is not sector specific; it focuses on general competences and pedagogical expertise rather than on technical competence.
Each of the two certificates of professional competences in the TP FPA has requirements specific to one of the main activities. There are also transversal competence requirements common to both.
(a) CCP preparation and facilitation of training:
• devising a training programme based on the demand and context;
• elaborating a pedagogical scenario and preparing necessary materials, equipment and venue for the training;
• evaluating learning outcomes: measuring learner achievements against the objectives; analysing results and developing new actions if needed;
• identifying and dealing with individual obstacles to learning; identifying the preferred learning modes of groups and learners and adapting the pedagogy accordingly;
• assessing and following up on the training;
• using ICT tools to support learning;
• teamwork, conflict management, communication.
(b) CCP contributing to the elaboration of training and supporting learners on their learning paths:
• identifying and mobilising stakeholders in developing a training path (for example, guidance professionals, companies/employers, members of the evaluation jury, experts);
• contributing to detailing training activities within existing or new training programmes; adapting to the specific requirements, context, resources and/or developing necessary pedagogical materials and tools;
• guiding learners in their professional integration and projects by identifying skill and competence gaps and devising the means to fill them;
• following up learner progress by contributing to their assessment and elaboration of learning paths; defining steps in the learning pathways; helping identify difficulties and acting as a mediator if problems are beyond the trainers’ responsibilities;
• identifying the objective of the training; gathering quantitative and qualitative information; evaluating the training against the objectives; preparing reports on the results of the training;
• awareness of job search techniques.
(c) Transversal competences common for both CCPs:
• managing logistical aspects of training (material, administrative and pedagogical resources);
• collecting updated information on pedagogic, technical, commercial, socio-economic and legal aspects related to training and applying it to training strategies and practice;
• using opportunities to contact companies to clarify training needs;
• self-assessment of professional practice, continuous development of personal competences;
• social and professional responsibility: respecting health and safety regulations, encouraging non-discriminatory attitudes, raising awareness of learners about sustainable development, citizenship, consumption.
Link to the validation of non-formal and informal learning
The qualification can be obtained through the validation of non-formal and informal learning and has the same value as those obtained through a training course: about a quarter of candidates qualify this way.
In 2010, 760 candidates obtained the adult trainer qualification, among them 563 through a training programme and 197 through the validation of prior experience. There are no data on the breakdown of participants by categories. However, it is assumed that this opportunity is of interest to incompany trainers who often do not have a qualification in training but have developed relevant skills and competences in their work.
According to the AFPA, and based on the qualitative feedback they receive from participants, in-company trainers undergoing validation benefit by acquiring a recognised qualification, which helps them secure, improve or expand their employment and career prospects, and by reflecting on their professional practice as a trainer and increasing awareness of their skills and competences.
As the AFPA employs trainers of adults, the organisation developed internal plans to ensure that the AFPA ‘in-house’ trainers had their professional experience recognised, thus, raising the quality of the services provided.