HomeThe 2012 recommendation underlines that the individual must be at the focus of validation arrangements: ‘[the] arrangements for the validation of non-formal and informal learning which enable individuals to (a) have knowledge, skills and competences which have been acquired through non-formal and informal learning validated, including, where applicable, through open educational resources; (b) obtain a full qualification, or, where applicable, part qualification, on the basis of validated non-formal and informal learning experiences (Council of the EU, 2012, p. 3, point 1, emphasis added). More...