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As one of the fastest growing economies of Europe, Lithuania considers investment in human resources paramount. This requires making IVET more attractive to young people and, despite high educational attainment levels, encouraging more adults to develop their skills further. Improved vocational guidance, more professional development opportunities for VET teachers and more attention to quality assurance are some of the current priorities. Although mainly school-based, IVET includes some forms of work-based learning. Apprenticeship-type training exists but is not yet very strong. The intention to include non-formally acquired qualifications in the Lithuanian qualifications framework and use of European structural Fund support are expected to help strengthen work-based learning routes.
Relative to medium-level general education, there is evidence that vocational graduates enjoy a faster transition to work and are more likely to have a permanent first job in line with their qualifications. But there are substantial differences between countries. Benefits for vocational graduates are most prominent in countries with strong vocational education and training systems with a close connection between school- and work-based learning. However, as people age and gain experience, differences between medium-level general education and vocational graduates diminish. This report aims to improve our understanding of labour market outcomes for vocational education graduates. A real need if we are to respond effectively to the current challenges of high unemployment.
People, organisations and governments invest in vocational education and training (VET) because of its positive outcomes, such as higher wages, improved productivity and economic growth. But VET also brings non-economic benefits, such as lower absenteeism and less crime. Research on VET’s benefits has focused on specific relationships, such its impact on productivity or health. Insufficient attention has been given how VET’s benefits interact in organisations.
This report complements a recent Cedefop publication 'On the way to 2020: Data for vocational education and training policies - Country statistical overviews (Cedefop, 2013)', which has made use of the same data but has organised them in a different way. While the previous report offered a set of country snapshots, this publication offers a set of indicator snapshots. It is a result of continuing efforts to review and improve indicators as new and better data become available.
Cedefop has long tracked the changing roles and professional development of teachers and trainers in vocational education and training. In this publication, it analyses nineteen Member State initiatives which aim to set out competence requirements for trainers in adult learning and continuing training. The analysis, which also covers validation of non-formal and informal learning, forms the basis of a proposed emerging competence profile for trainers. The publication contributes to the work of the thematic working group on the professional development of trainers in vocational education and training, which the European Commission set up in 2012 and jointly coordinates with Cedefop.
Cedefop’s new publication provides a statistical overview of vocational education and training and lifelong learning in European countries. Data are based on international statistics enabling comparisons of countries and statistical averages for the European Union. This report, a first result of a continuing process, aims to be a valuable tool, which can be used in various ways and adds user-friendly evidence for many purposes. It should help policy-makers and researchers and ease access to the information available.
Some 25 study visits held between 2010 and 2012 focused on helping vulnerable adults tackle the labour market. They covered, among other things, how to access guidance services; how to make full use of knowledge, skills and competences, and how to get them recognised; how to participate in training, and how to find rewarding employment. This publication collects findings from these study visits, and features 29 successful initiatives from all over Europe.
Cedefop’s fourth annual report on developments in national qualification frameworks (NQFs) in Europe confirms that these frameworks are considered a key way of making qualifications easier to understand and compare within and between countries. It has also found that such frameworks are increasingly used to encourage changes in education and training. For instance, during 2012 some National Qualifications Frameworks opened up to include qualifications awarded outside the formal public system.
European countries have set themselves 22 specific goals by 2014 to support their long-term vision for vocational education and training (VET). This report is a first step in understanding progress by mid-2012 towards these goals, endorsed in 2010 in the Bruges communiqué to help achieve the Europe 2020 agenda.
The past decade has seen intense curriculum reform in vocational education in Europe. Learning outcomes now provide the foundation for curriculum design in all European countries seeking to make vocational training more attractive and responsive to leaners’ and labour market needs. This Cedefop research paper, addressing 32 countries participating in Education and Training 2020, discusses different curriculum policies focusing on learning outcomes and examines the implications these have on teaching and learners’ assessment in initial VET. Conclusions propose key policy messages for effective curriculum design processes and curriculum delivery that may benefit learners.
According to the forecasts, assuming a slow but steady recovery, up to 2020, the European economy will create some eight million new jobs. However, nearly 10 times as many jobs, around 75 million, will need to be filled as people retire or leave the workforce. Although there will be job openings for all types of occupations, most new jobs will be at the higher and lower end of the skill spectrum bringing a risk of job polarisation. Weak employment growth indicates that there may be an oversupply of people with high-level qualifications in the short term, but by 2020, Europe will have the most highly-qualified workforce in its history. This publication provides the data behind these trends and discusses the challenges they pose for policy-makers.
Slowly but steadily, the attitude towards population ageing is changing in Europe. Early reports had described it as a demographic time bomb with negative consequences for economies and societies. But these changes are increasingly seen as harbingers of opportunity and the emerging ‘silver economy’ as a driver of future growth.
Cedefop's medium-term skills forecasts have proven very popular. But how does the skills project approach the topic and draw conclusions? This publication provides an overview of the methods underpinning the project. Cedefop’s forecast is not intended to replace forecasting efforts in individual countries, but to share the knowledge acquired during the development of different systems and methods, and to highlight the results. This shared knowledge can help to improve the methods used in each country and to resolve outstanding issues. Cedefop’s forecast can also inspire new forecasting initiatives. The feedback provided by countries can in turn help make the European forecast even more precise. The more solid the method, the more reliable the results.
National qualifications frameworks are central to European objectives, but are becoming equally important for achieving national aims.
The vocational education and training (VET) system of Cyprus is playing a significant role in dealing with the adverse effects of the economic crisis on the labour market and in laying the foundations for future development. To continue to fulfil the expectations of the Cypriot economy and society, VET is undergoing essential reforms.
Vocational education and training in Denmark has embarked on a process of modernisation aiming at, primarily, increasing flexibility, and individualisation, quality and efficiency.
Assessment and recognition of informal and non-formal learning, competence-based curricula, innovative approaches to teaching, and increased possibilities for partial qualifications are factors that bring Danish education and training closer to learners.
Recent introduction of new apprenticeship and EUX programmes increase flexibility of various pathways in vocational upper secondary education and training — IVET — and reflect an overall educational policy trend towards more differentiated and individualised working methods. The latter programme is particularly relevant in improving progression of IVET students to higher education, which is still rather limited and is currently a political priority in Denmark.
Public financing of VET is a central feature of the system. The government attaches great importance to improving quality and efficiency of the Danish education and training system to equip all individuals with the skills required for a modern workforce in a knowledge-based society, permit career development, and reduce skills mismatches.