27 octobre 2012

La mobilité des étudiants du Moyen-Orient

La Note Campus France Hors Série n°4 est consacrée à la mobilité des étudiants du Moyen-Orient (Quinze pays font l’objet de cette étude: Arabie Saoudite, Bahreïn, Égypte, Émirats Arabes Unis, Irak, Iran, Israël, Jordanie, Koweït, Liban, Oman, Territoires palestiniens, Qatar, Syrie et Yémen. Ces pays avaient déjà fait l’objet d’une Note n°22 publiée en avril 2010.).
Dans une première partie, cette étude fait le point sur la mobilité internationale des étudiants de quinze pays du Moyen-Orient, en listant les principaux pays qui les accueillent, grâce aux données fournies par l’UNESCO. La deuxième partie de la Note s’attache à la mobilité de ces étudiants en France, à partir des statistiques communiquées par le Ministère de l’Enseignement supérieur et de la Recherche. Des commentaires détaillés permettent de mieux comprendre les enjeux de chacun de ces pays, dans un contexte modifié notamment par les événements liés au « Printemps arabe ». La Note fait également le point sur le programme de l’Office Méditerranéen de la Jeunesse où participent en particulier l’Égypte et le Liban et qui a vocation à se diffuser dans ces pays du pourtour méditerranéen.
Avant-Propos

En 2011-2012, la France accueillait 12 475 étudiants originaires des pays du Moyen-Orient, représentant 4,34 % du total des étudiants étrangers en France. Les Libanais, bien qu’en nombre de moins en moins important, représentent toujours à eux seuls plus du tiers des ressortissants de la zone (40% avec 4 935 étudiants dans les établissements français en 2011-2012). Viennent ensuite l’Iran (2 103 en France en 2011 soit +5% depuis 2009), la Syrie (qui passe derrière l’Iran pour la 1ère fois avec 1 993 étudiants en France en 2011) et l’Égypte qui, après une forte progression entre 2007 et 2009, marque le pas et envoie moins d’étudiants en France (1 254 dans les établissements français en 2011 soit -5% depuis 2009).
Le nombre de ces étudiants est en baisse régulière depuis les années 2000, principalement du fait de la baisse du nombre d’étudiants du Liban et de la Syrie (-27% d’étudiants de ces pays dans les universités françaises entre 2007 et 2011). À l’opposé, les autres pays de la zone, et notamment les pays du Golfe Persique, envoient eux de plus en plus d’étudiants dans l’hexagone. Ainsi, entre 2007 et 2011 on observe une croissance de 73% des étudiants saoudiens dans les universités françaises, de 63% pour les ressortissants des Émirats Arabes Unis et de 18% pour les étudiants koweïtiens. Dans cette zone actuellement au centre de toutes les attentions, en raison du « Printemps arabe » mais aussi de l’activité économique et politique de plus en plus marquée de pays du Golfe Persique comme le Qatar, l’enseignement supérieur français doit travailler à mieux faire connaitre l’offre de formation auprès des étudiants et des prescripteurs traditionnels (établissements locaux, parents, responsables des bourses de mobilité...) tous habitués au schéma anglo-saxon omniprésent. Dans le même temps, la France bénéficie indubitablement d’une image traditionnellement positive auprès des acteurs académiques des pays de la zone.
La France n’est pas une destination naturelle pour les étudiants originaires du Moyen-Orient, sauf pour le Liban et la Syrie, grâce aux liens historiques et linguistiques qu’ils ont avec la France. Il y a cependant, notamment dans les pays du Golfe, une récente volonté de donner une plus grande place à la langue française (où elle est en cours d’introduction dans les écoles publiques au Qatar et au Bahreïn) ainsi qu’un souhait de plus en plus marqué de diversification dans les pays d’accueil, où la France a un rôle à jouer.
Les principaux pays d’accueil des étudiants du Moyen-Orient

Parmi les pays d’accueil traditionnels ce sont les États-Unis et le Royaume-Uni qui captent la majorité des étudiants du Moyen-Orient. Les relations historiques qui lient la Grande-Bretagne à cette région du monde, ainsi que le rôle géopolitique joué par les États-Unis localement, font en effet du modèle universitaire anglo-saxon un modèle de référence pour ces pays. Cette réalité est toutefois légèrement mise à mal depuis quelques mois et certains établissements sont pointés du doigt dans la presse des pays du Golfe Persique notamment étant donné l’importance de leurs coûts d’inscription qui n’est pas toujours à la hauteur de leurs réputations.
Les trois pays francophones et/ou francophiles qui échappent encore à cette règle sont le Liban, la Syrie et l’Égypte. Mais, pour deux de ces pays (Liban et Syrie) qui lui sont historiquement proches, la France subit une désaffection en raison du développement d’une mobilité régionale et de l’apparition de destinations plus récentes et très attractives comme l’Australie. L’Ukraine est également une destination de plus en plus populaire auprès des étudiants de cette zone notamment pour les formations médicales et grâce aux facilités qu’elle offre aux étudiants étrangers.
Mais, à l’instar d’autres zones géographiques, une mobilité intra-régionale se développe également au Moyen-Orient et ce sont surtout deux pays qui tirent leur épingle du jeu:
• Jordanie

L’enseignement supérieur est, depuis les années 1970, une des priorités du Royaume hachémite et a connu un grand développement avec la multiplication des universités publiques. La Jordanie s’est inspirée du modèle anglo-saxon pour développer son système universitaire. L’université qui reflète le mieux cette assimilation est la JUST (Jordan University of Science and Technology). Cet établissement public, qui assure des formations dans tous les domaines liés aux sciences et aux nouvelles technologies, a en effet signé de nombreux accords de partenariat avec des universités anglaises et américaines de renommée internationale. La Jordan University propose également des « packages » d’accueil pour les étudiants étrangers provenant des pays du Golfe ainsi que de Malaisie et d’Indonésie. Plus généralement, les universités jordaniennes ont mis en place des formations adaptées au monde arabo-musulman, notamment des Masters en gestion des finances islamiques. Tous ces facteurs font de la Jordanie l’une des cinq premières destinations pour les étudiants du Moyen-Orient, notamment ceux d’Arabie Saoudite, du Bahreïn, du Koweït, du Qatar, d’Irak, d’Oman, du Yémen, de la Syrie, des Territoires palestiniens et d’Israël.
Le système d’enseignement supérieur attire un nombre croissant d’étudiants étrangers (29 379 au total en 2009, dont 23 642 venus du Moyen-Orient, selon l’UNESCO), notamment dans les universités privées et en moindre proportion dans les universités publiques. Le fait que beaucoup de cours soient dispensés en anglais (médecine, pharmacie, ingénierie, informatique, sciences dures, commerce, gestion, finances, comptabilité, etc.) joue également beaucoup pour cette internationalisation.
Mais ces conditions favorables à l’attractivité des étudiants étrangers pourraient être mises à mal, car si la Jordanie bénéficiait jusqu’à 2011 d’une certaine stabilité politique cela a été quelque peu remis en cause par le « Printemps arabe » qui a eu des répercussions dans ce pays où des manifestations parfois violentes ont eu lieu. Depuis l’été 2011, le Royaume a ainsi subi de multiples remaniements ministériels au gré des rassemblements publics réclamant plus de libertés et de transparence dans la gouvernance du pays.
• Arabie Saoudite

L’Arabie Saoudite propose des formations dans les sciences religieuses qui intéressent une cible étudiante assez importante dans les pays du Moyen-Orient et du Golfe Persique. C’est le cas notamment de la Syrie, de la Jordanie, du Yémen, de l’Égypte, des Territoires palestiniens et du Bahreïn. Cette nouvelle offre de formation fait de l’Arabie Saoudite un pays d’accueil important pour les étudiants de cette région du monde et plus largement des pays musulmans.
L’Arabie Saoudite doit faire face à une population jeune et nombreuse mais aussi à un taux de chômage élevé. L’éducation constitue donc une des priorités du Royaume dans sa politique de réforme. Depuis l’accession au trône du Roi Abdallah en 2005, des efforts considérables ont été fournis pour réaménager l’éducation. Ainsi, en 7 ans, l’Arabie est passée de 10 à 25 établissements publics d’enseignement supérieur.
L’Arabie consacre plus d’un quart de ses dépenses (30 milliards d’euros en 2011) à l’éducation et à l’enseignement supérieur: les cours dispensés à l’université sont gratuits et les étudiants touchent des allocations mensuelles. Le Royaume peine toutefois à augmenter qualitativement l’enseignement supérieur. Il faut souligner, d’une part, que le financement des bourses et allocations des étudiants ajouté aux grands projets d’infrastructures grèvent lourdement le budget. Face à la carence de son système éducatif, l’Arabie Saoudite compte aujourd’hui plus de 100 000 étudiants à l’étranger. Depuis le lancement du programme de bourses Abdallah (KASP) il y a 5 ans, des milliers d’étudiants partent chaque année pour les États-Unis (45 000 étudiants saoudiens au total), le Canada, l’Australie, la Grande-Bretagne, la France… Au total, ce sont 130 000 étudiants qui ont bénéficié de ce programme depuis sa création, son succès, ajouté à des scandales qui ont récemment secoué certains établissements locaux, a conduit à son renouvellement pour 5 ans.
• Autres facteurs à prendre en compte

Le développement d’établissements et de pôles universitaires locaux à vocation régionale voire mondiale est également à souligner dans cette région du monde qui est celle qui compte le plus de campus off-shore. Ainsi le Qatar est en train de développer depuis quelques années un centre très prometteur: Education city. Sont rassemblées les filières d’excellence des meilleurs établissements mondiaux (Weill Cornell Medical College, Texas A&M University, Virginia commonwealth University, Université Carnegie, Nothwestern University, HEC). Environ un millier d’étudiants profitent actuellement de ces établissements et de ce campus prestigieux qui a vocation à beaucoup se développer dans les prochaines années.
L’Arabian Gulf University, lancé en 1979 au Bahreïn, cofinancée par les 6 pays du CCEAG (Arabie Saoudite, Bahreïn, Émirats Arabes Unis, Koweït, Qatar), vise à accueillir des étudiants tous boursiers d’un de ces pays. Elle accueille la French Arabian School of Management and Finance, initialement née d’un partenariat entre le gouvernement français et le gouvernement bahreïnien et qui associe désormais l’ESSEC.
Il faut bien sûr également citer l’Université Paris-Sorbonne Abou-Dhabi, pont naturel entre les pays de la zone et la France, qui est maintenant bien installée et de plus en plus populaire auprès des étudiants des Émirats Arabes Unis (EAU) et plus largement dans les pays du Golfe. Des formations désormais également enseignées en anglais permettent de mieux rayonner dans cette zone. Par ailleurs, il faut noter le projet d’ouverture de formations en sciences dures au sein de cet établissement qui pourraient également attirer un plus grand nombre d’étudiants.
Partie 2 - Les étudiants du Moyen-Orient en France: fiches statistiques et commentaires

Selon les données statistiques du ministère français de l’Enseignement supérieur et de la Recherche, la France a accueilli, en 2011-2012, 12 475 étudiants originaires des pays du Moyen-Orient parmi lesquels 79% étaient inscrits en université. 23% des étudiants du Moyen-Orient dans les universités françaises ont poursuivi des études au niveau Licence, 45% d’entre eux au niveau Master et 32% au niveau Doctorat. Pour mémoire, 43% de tous les étudiants étrangers en France étaient inscrits en Licence, 44% en Master et 12 % en Doctorat.
Les filières les plus choisies par les jeunes ressortissants de cette région du monde étaient les sciences dures (31%) suivies par les lettres-sciences humaines (28%) et par les sciences économiques (13%). Pour mémoire, 26% de l’effectif total des étudiants étrangers dans les universités françaises étaient inscrits en sciences, 30% en lettres-sciences humaines et 23% en sciences économiques.
• Arabie Saoudite

La mise en oeuvre de partenariats avec l’Arabie Saoudite participe à la relance de la coopération universitaire dans les domaines du droit (Paris 1, Paris 5 et Lyon 3), des sciences économiques et de gestion (Bordeaux 3, Paris 1, Grenoble School of Management, HEC, SKEMA) des sciences de l’ingénieur (Lille 1, Université de Versailles, École des Mines de Nantes), du tourisme et d’archéologie (Paris 1, Lille 2, Nancy 2), de la médecine (programme de formation en France de médecins...).
La hausse des étudiants saoudiens en France (498 dans les universités françaises en 2011, en progression de 73% depuis 2007) semble être principalement le fruit de la volonté des autorités locales de diversifier les destinations de leurs étudiants et d’échapper au « tout anglo-saxon ». La politique d’ouverture entreprise par le Roi Abdallah a favorisé la hausse du niveau des bourses octroyées aux étudiants saoudiens souhaitant poursuivre leurs études à l’étranger. De même, les actions de promotion de l’enseignement supérieur, initiées par l’Ambassade de France sur place et soutenues par l’Agence Campus France depuis 2005 ont très certainement contribué à cette hausse (ouverture de 2 Espaces à Riyad et Djeddah, participation des établissements français chaque année plus importante au salon IECHE de Riyad, contacts réguliers avec le bureau culturel saoudiens à Paris…).
D’autres éléments peuvent être à l’origine de cette tendance, notamment la mise en place d’une forte coopération médicale afin de permettre aux étudiants saoudiens de se spécialiser lors d’études (longues ou courtes) dans les CHU français (50 nouveaux médecins débuteront leur spécialisation en France en novembre 2013, précédée par une année d’approfondissement de leur niveau de français). Télécharger la note "La mobilité des étudiants du Moyen-Orient".
Off Σειρά Campus Γαλλία Σημείωση Νο 4 είναι αφιερωμένο στην κινητικότητα των φοιτητών από τη Μέση Ανατολή (Δεκαπέντε χώρες αποτελούν το αντικείμενο αυτής της μελέτης: η Σαουδική Αραβία, το Μπαχρέιν, την Αίγυπτο, Ηνωμένα Αραβικά Εμιράτα, το Ιράκ, το Ιράν, το Ισραήλ, την Ιορδανία, Κουβέιτ, Λίβανος, Ομάν, Παλαιστινιακά Εδάφη, το Κατάρ, τη Συρία και την Υεμένη. οι χώρες αυτές είχαν ήδη υποβληθεί σε μια αρ. Σημείωση 22 εκδόθηκε τον Απρίλιο του 2010).
Στο πρώτο μέρος αυτού του εκθέσεις μελέτης σχετικά με τη διεθνή κινητικότητα των φοιτητών από τις δεκαπέντε χώρες της Μέσης Ανατολής, όπου απαριθμούνται οι κυριότερες χώρες υποδοχής, με βάση τα στοιχεία που παρέχονται από την UNESCO.
Το δεύτερο μέρος του σημειώματος συνδέεται με την κινητικότητα των φοιτητών στη Γαλλία, με βάση στατιστικά στοιχεία που παρέχονται από το Υπουργείο Ανώτατης Εκπαίδευσης και Έρευνας. Αναλυτικές παρατηρήσεις για να κατανοήσουν καλύτερα τις προκλήσεις της κάθε χώρας, σε ένα πλαίσιο στο οποίο εντάσσεται άλλαξε τα γεγονότα που σχετίζονται με την «Αραβική Άνοιξη». Σημειώστε, επίσης, το θέμα στην ημερήσια διάταξη της Μεσογειακό Γραφείο Νεότητας που συμμετέχουν και ιδίως την Αίγυπτο και το Λίβανο και πρόκειται να μεταδοθεί στις χώρες της Μεσογείου. Περισσότερα...

Posté par pcassuto à 03:18 - - Permalien [#]
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Tests of and Degrees in French as a foreign language

Five countries host more than half of the world’s international students: the United States, the United Kingdom, France, Australia, and Germany. France hosts more than 260,000 international students, putting it in third place after the United States and the United Kingdom. International students account for 12% of enrollments in French higher education.
Students choose a host country based on several criteria, including the language used in everyday life and in education. The countries in which education is delivered in widely spoken languages -English, of course, but also French and German- are those that enroll the most international students, according to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).
For 4 out of 5 international students not enrolled in structured study-abroad programs, language proficiency is a decisive factor in the programs choice. France, while offering relatively few programs in English, attracts international students from countries influenced by French culture by providing easy access to French language training. Most students return to their home countries having achieved proficiency level B1 or B2 in the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR), the levels most commonly required by institutions for students completing a period of study abroad.
Since 2001, the Council of Europeʼs CEFR has set reference levels for foreign-language proficiency. The CEFR has become Europe’s standard for language learning, with 6 levels of proficiency defined by criteria of language competency in the situations and settings in which individuals are most likely to be called upon to use a foreign language.
Tests of and diplomas in French language required for admission to postsecondary programs

The levels of academic achievement required to obtain an extended-stay visa for study in France were set forth in an interministerial circular (from the ministries of the Interior, Foreign affairs, and Higher education and research) dated January 27, 2006. The criteria included the candidate’s educational level, the quality of the candidate’s prior academic program, and the institutional framework of the proposed program of study in France. Criterion 4 deals with the importance of “language proficiency, with assessment of applicants’ proficiency in French, including applicants who show exceptional academic potential.”
Several tests of French proficiency and diplomas in French language are accepted for purposes of admission into a French institution of higher education

• To enroll in the first or second year of a program in a university (Licence 1 and 2) or school of architecture, international students (from outside the European Union) must follow the so-called preliminary admission procedure, known as DAP. As part of their DAP application, they must demonstrate their level of French proficiency by passing a language test (TCF-DAP or TEF) or by earning a degree (DELF/DALF).
• For enrollments in the third year of university study (Licence 3), in a Master’s program, (Master 1 and 2), in a Doctoral program, or in one of France’s Grandes Écoles, no uniform requirement applies. Each institution is free to set its own criteria for French proficiency. Prospective students should inquire about the language requirements of the institutions of interest to them.
TCF (Test de connaissance du français - Test of knowledge of French)

The TCF, administered by the French Ministry of Education and the Ministry of Higher education and research, is a standardized test of general French designed by CIEP (Centre international d’études pédagogiques, International center for pedagogical studies), a certifying organization that is a member of ALTE (the Association of Language Testers in Europe). The TCF satisfies the quality requirements of ISO 9001, version 2008, in all of its processes. The TCF test of comprehension may be taken on computer in some countries; the computer-based test of written
expression will be available soon. Test results are valid for 2 years. Candidates wishing to repeat the TCF or TCF-DAP must wait 60 days from the date of their prior sitting. www.ciep.fr/tcf/
Study in France: levels required for applications for preliminary admission (the DAP procedure)
A specific version of the TCF (TCF-DAP) is required for applications for preliminary admission (DAP). The TCF-DAP includes a mandatory test of written French. www.ciep.fr/tcfdap/. The TCF is the only test recognized by the CPU (Conférence des présidents d'université, Conference of university presidents) for admission to Licence 3, Masters 1, and Masters 2 programs. Note: The required score on the test varies from institution to institution and from program to program.
Description of the TCF and TCF-DAP: www.ciep.fr/tcf/
Registration fees and locations: Candidates can take the TCF in 626 centers approved by CIEP. Centers are located in 141 countries, including France. To register, candidates should contact an approved center for information on testing dates and for the costs of the required and elective components of the test. In cooperation with the courses in French language and culture offered at the Sorbonne, CIEP offers monthly TCF sessions. To register, visit: www.ccfs-sorbonne.fr/-Centre-CIEP-Sorbonne-.html. Approved TCF centers: www2.ciep.fr/tcf/centres/.
Le TEF (Test d’évaluation de français - French assessment test)

The TEF, administered by the Paris Chamber of Commerce and Industry (CCIP), accurately measures testtakers’ skills in general French, placing them on a scale of proficiency levels indexed to the CEFR and to Canadian language-proficiency levels. The TEF consists of a series of modules in multiple-choice format (written comprehension, oral comprehension, vocabulary, and structure) and two open-ended modules (written and oral expression). Since 2005, an electronic version of the multiple-choice modules known as e-tef has allowed test-takers to learn their results immediately..
Candidates may take the TEF as often as they wish. The validity of TEF results is open-ended; institutions and organizations make their own decisions about how recent a candidate’s results must be. CCIP recommends that results should be accepted for one year from the date of the test.
 Study in France: levels required for applications for preliminary admission (the DAP procedure)
To meet DAP requirements required for admission to years 1 and 2 at a university or school of architecture, the TEF is accepted in lieu of the TCF-DAP (ministerial decree of May 3, 2007), provided the candidate passes all of the mandatory components of the test and earns a score of at least 325 out of 450 on the test of written expression, a score that corresponds to level B2 of the CEFR and a grade of 14/20 in the French marking system. www.fda.ccip.fr/tef/
Note: Passing scores may vary from institution to institution and from program to program.
 Description of the TEF: www.fda.ccip.fr/tef/epreuves
 Registration fees and locations
The TEF is administered in about 100 countries by some 400 approved test centers. To register, contact an approved center of your choice. Each center sets its own test dates and fees. Approved TEF centers: www.fda.ccip.fr/tef/centres
The DELF (Diplôme d’études en langue française - Diploma of French-language studies) and DALF (Diplôme approfondi de langue française - Advanced diploma in French language)
The DELF and DALF diplomas, conferred by the French Ministry of Education, and the Ministry of Higher education and research attest to the holder’s level of proficiency in the French language. Six different diplomas are offered, corresponding to the six levels of the CEFR: DELF A1, A2, B1, and B2, and DALF C1 and C2. To earn any of the diplomas, candidates must pass tests in four competency areas: oral comprehension, oral expression, written comprehension, and written expression. Unlike the results of language tests, which expire after a certain period, the DELF and DALF diplomas are valid for life
 Study in France: levels required for applications for preliminary admission (the DAP procedure)
To meet DAP requirements required for admission to years 1 and 2 at a university or school of architecture, applicants must obtain a DELF B2 diploma (decree of January 18, 2008, published in the Journal officiel de la République française n°30 on February 5, 2008, p. 2206) or a DALF diploma (C1 or C2). Holders of these diplomas are exempted from any language test that might otherwise be required for admission to a French university.
Note: The level of the diploma required may vary from institution to institution and from program to program.
 Description of DELF tests: www.ciep.fr
 Description of DALF tests: www.ciep.fr
• Candidates must score at least 5/25 on each of the four tests.
• The total score required to obtain a DELF or DALF diploma is 50/100.
Registration fees and locations

1,000 test centers are found in secondary schools, language schools, universities, and cultural institutes (such as the Alliance Française) in 164 countries. Candidates should register directly with the test center of their choice. Fees associated with the diploma are set by each approved test center. Fees vary from country to country. For more information on registration and fees, contact a test center in your country or in France. CNED, the Centre national d'enseignement à distance (National center for distance learning) offers preparatory courses for DELF levels A1, A2, B1, B2 (30 hours for each level) and DALF levels C1 and C2 (30 hours each): www.cned.fr
Approved DELF/DALF centers:

• Outside France, directory of Centers: www.ciep.fr/delfdalf/annuaire_centres.php
• In France, list of Centers: www.ciep.fr
Exemptions from requirements to demonstrate proficiency in french

Applicants who meet one of the following criteria may be exempted from the requirement that they demonstrate their proficiency in French:
• Holders of the French baccalauréat, the international or European baccalauréat, and the Franco-German baccalauréat;
• Nationals of states where French is the official language: Benin, Burkina Faso, Democratic Republic of Congo, Côte dʼIvoire, Gabon, Guinea, Mali, Niger, Repubic of CongoSenegal, and Togo;
• Nationals of multilingual states where French is one of the official languages: Burundi, Cameroon, Canada, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros Islands, Djibouti, Haiti, Madagascar, Mauritania (except for students in the Arabic-language curriculum), Rwanda, Seychelles, Switzerland, and Vanuatu. In order to be excused from taking the TCF-DAP, applicants must have completed all of their secondary education in a French-language institution;
• Students graduating from bilingual programs in which French was one of the languages;
• Nationals of states in which final examinations for graduation from secondary school are conducted primarily in French;
• Applicants participating in a program governed by an intergovernmental accord or interuniversity agreement;
• International recipients of scholarships from the French government, international organizations, or foreign governments whose grants are administered by an approved French entity;
• Children of diplomats serving in France;
• In some cases, students enrolling in programs taught entirely in English: www.campusfrance.org
Applicants who are citizens of a state in the European Economic Area or Switzerland are exempted from the preliminary admission procedure (DAP) and may apply directly to universities of their choice. However, applicants to preparatory programs for theGrandes Écoles, University institutes of technology (IUT), university-based professional institutes (IUPs), and postsecondary technical programs (STS, sections de techniciens supérieurs) are subject to a specific requirement. They must apply online for preliminary admission at the postbac admission Website. The same online preliminary admission Process is required of international applicants who hold or will soon receive a French baccalauréat earned abroad; a European or Franco-German Baccalaureate; or effective July 2011, a Franco-Spanish Bachibac or franco-italian Esabac www.admission-postbac.fr

Posté par pcassuto à 03:00 - - Permalien [#]

"We mean Business"

Generation Erasmus"We mean Business" - Strasbourg, 14 décembre 2012
«La campagne «We mean business» viendra en appui des actions menées par les États membres pour lutter contre le chômage des jeunes, qui atteint des niveaux excessivement élevés dans certains pays de l'Union européenne. Nous voulons en particulier attirer l'attention sur la valeur des stages à l'étranger, qui peuvent améliorer les compétences linguistiques des intéressés, leur donner de l'assurance et accroître leurs capacités d'adaptation. Les études que nous menons montrent que les employeurs valorisent de plus en plus ce type de compétences.» indique Androulla Vassiliou, commissaire européenne à l'éducation, à la culture, au multilinguisme et à la jeunesse précise lors du lancement de la campagne au niveau européen.
L'objectif de cette campagne lancée en avril dernier est de sensibiliser les entreprises, petites, moyennes ou grandes, à l'intérêt d'accueillir un stagiaire Erasmus ou Leonardo da Vinci venu d'un autre pays européen. Pour les jeunes, ce stage constitue une opportunité unique de renforcer ses compétences linguistiques, techniques, d'améliorer son adaptabilité et, à terme, de faciliter son insertion professionnelle.
Mais, il s'agit d'une situation gagnant-gagnant pour les jeunes et pour les employeurs. En effet, l'accueil d'un stagiaire Erasmus ou Leonardo dans l'entreprise insuffle une dimension européenne dans l'entreprise: langue, culture, méthode de travail. Sa venue peut offrir de nouvelles perspectives à l'entreprise et lui permettre d'ouvrir des portes sur de nouveaux marchés en Europe. Enfin, c'est une opportunité pour tester d'éventuels futurs collaborateurs et – pourquoi pas? – de recruter la perle rare.
En France, l'évènement We Mean Business s'inscrira en prolongement de la conférence de valorisation de l'Agence Europe Education Formation France, le vendredi 14 décembre 2012 après-midi. A la clé: témoignages d'entreprises et de stagiaires, présentation d'outils de mise en relation entre les jeunes et les entrepreneurs et une occasion de rencontrer de nombreux acteurs impliqués dans coopération éducation-entreprise. Evénement gratuit. Inscrivez-vous!.
Erasmus γενιάς «Εννοούμε επιχειρηματίες" - Στρασβούργο, 14 Δεκ. 2012
"Η εκστρατεία" Εννοούμε επιχείρηση "θα στηρίξει τις δράσεις που έχουν αναληφθεί από τα κράτη μέλη για την καταπολέμηση της ανεργίας των νέων, η οποία έφθασε σε πολύ υψηλά επίπεδα σε ορισμένες χώρες της Ευρωπαϊκής Ένωσης.
Είμαστε ιδιαίτερα θέλουμε να επιστήσουμε την προσοχή στην αξία της πρακτικής άσκησης στο εξωτερικό, η οποία μπορεί να βελτιώσει τις γλωσσικές δεξιότητες των ενδιαφερομένων μερών, να τους δώσει την εμπιστοσύνη και να αυξήσει την αντιμετώπιση των δεξιοτήτων τους. Περισσότερα...

Posté par pcassuto à 02:39 - - Permalien [#]

U.S. and Australian International Student Data Collection

U.S. and Australian International Student Data CollectionU.S. and Australian International Student Data Collection - Key Differences and Practices. Download the briefing paper.
The Institute of International Education's Center for Academic Mobility Research is pleased to announce the publication of a new briefing paper: U.S. and Australian International Student Data Collection: Key Differences and Practices.
This briefing paper summarizes the findings of a comparative study on international student data collection methods and practices in the United States and in Australia, conducted in collaboration with the International Research and Analysis Unit of Australian Education International (AEI) with support from the Australian Government Department of Industry, Innovation, Science, Research and Tertiary Education (DIISRTE). The paper summarizes the key differences between the data collection systems of both countries and identifies best practices in Australian data collection which can be used to improve data collection efforts in other countries, as well as ways in which countries can collaborate to move toward the common goal of better cross-national comparability of mobility data. Download a copy of the briefing paper. Learn more about IIE’s Center for Academic Mobility Research.
V Conclusion

International fellowships, such as the Endeavour Award that allowed for this research, provide excellent opportunities for the in-depth exploration of mobility issues by allowing research staff at peer organizations to learn about research and data collection practices in other countries. As a result of this research, the following lessons were learned:
1) The U.S. and Australian international student data collections are synchronized in many ways but several aspects remain divergent. Examples of areas which are aligned include core definitions, such as basing the country of origin on citizenship rather than permanent residence, and the exclusion of students on tourist or other temporary entry visas. Areas where the data collections diverge include level of education: AEI enrollment data includes vocational education (VET), English Language Intensive Courses for Overseas Students (ELICOS) and schools (primary and secondary education) in addition to higher education, while U.S. data covers only higher education, and to a limited extent, intensive English enrollments. However, AEI does disaggregate data by level, thus valid comparisons can be made.
2) As the case of Chinese student enrollment shows, it is vital to take into account variations in data collection methodologies and definitions when making comparative analyses of cross-national data. Comparing published numbers without regard to these details may result in inaccurate conclusions.
3) The AEI monthly data releases reflect course enrollments, not student headcounts, which are reported only once a year. The Open Doors U.S. data collection is an annual headcount, and thus is actually reported on the same timeframe as the Australian data.
4) The higher level of government oversight and support of international education in Australia has a number of consequences for international student data collection. While access to data and compulsory data submission are major benefits, government-mandated data collection is not perfect. Education providers who do not receive government funding are not included in government data collection, which necessitates independent private sector data collection; in Australia this takes place primarily in the VET and ELICOS sectors.
5) Cultural differences, such as the stronger sense of corporatism in Australia, also play a role in facilitating data collection. Educational institutions and providers in the U.S. often operate in a competitive framework, where peer institutions are considered rivals or benchmarks to be surpassed. Institutions and providers may be unwilling to provide data which may be used to competitor’s advantage. Improving the performance of the U.S. as a whole in the global marketplace is generally not a consideration, although institutions may band together locally in the form of city and state consortia to jointly promote study in their immediate region. Australia, with a smaller overall population and smaller number of institutions and providers is more likely to band together at the national level, and this is reflected in the success of national data collection efforts.

Posté par pcassuto à 02:31 - - Permalien [#]

Next steps in risk-based quality assurance

HEFCE logoHEFCE has published the outcomes of its consultation on the future direction of quality assurance in higher education (notes 1 and 2).
The outcomes have been agreed by the HEFCE Board and will come into operation from the academic year 2013-14. They form a strong and positive package which puts students at its heart, and achieves better regulation by focusing effort where it is most needed. The revised approach, which builds on existing good practice, will protect and enhance the student experience through robust and rigorous reviews of the quality assurance of teaching and learning in universities and colleges, and the standards of their awards. Students will continue to play a key role, as central partners in the quality assurance and enhancement of their higher education experience.
Future institutional reviews will be more integrated, and more closely tailored to individual institutional circumstances. There will no longer be a mid-cycle review, and institutions with a longer track record of assuring their quality and standards will be reviewed every six years (note 3). HEFCE will formally ask the Quality Assurance Agency for Higher Education (QAA) to adopt the new approach, and the QAA will consult on implementing it in time for the 2013-14 academic year.
Minister for Universities, David Willetts, said:

'The sector has responded positively to HEFCE's consultation. These proposals cut the burden of red tape on our universities. As a result we will have a system that will focus the Quality Assurance Agency’s effort where it will have most impact, balancing better regulation with protecting the interests of students and supporting the enhancement of quality across the sector.'

HEFCE Chief Executive Sir Alan Langlands said:

‘Quality assurance is not simply about meeting a set of minimum standards. It drives improvement, dissemination of best practice and the achievement of excellence.
‘This is a balanced package of measures which recognises the crucial importance of student involvement in quality assurance and enhancement activities.
‘It will also result in better regulation through varying the frequency, nature and intensity of review.’

Notes

1. The publication is available on the HEFCE web-site. There were over 130 responses to the consultation. Over three-quarters of respondents supported the three key principles HEFCE had identified as essential to the risk-based approach:

  • the retention of a universal system for higher education which continues to promote enhancement
  • an approach which is robust and rigorous, enabling HEFCE to carry out its statutory duty to secure assessments of quality for higher education providers that have access to public funding
  • an approach which enables students to continue to play a prominent role in assessing their own academic experiences.

There was also wide cross-sector support for a range of other proposals:

  • to reduce unnecessary burden and achieve better regulation, targeting the QAA’s efforts where they are most needed
  • to tailor external review to the individual circumstances of providers by modifying the frequency, nature and intensity of review
  • to ensure transparency, for example through the application of clear criteria and the publication on the QAA website of a rolling programme of reviews. 

2. The consultation followed a commitment in the Government’s higher education white paper, ‘Students at the heart of the system’, and subsequent technical consultation, to introduce ‘a risk-based quality assurance regime that focuses regulatory effort where it will have most impact’ and which would give greater prominence to the interests of students. The Government asked HEFCE ‘to consult on the criteria against which overall risk should be assessed and the frequency of review, with a view to achieving very substantial deregulatory change for institutions that can demonstrate low risk’. HEFCE was also asked to consult on ‘a set of ad hoc triggers which would be central to a risk-based approach to quality assurance’. (White paper, paragraph 3.20)
3. HEFCE is asking the QAA to discontinue any form of mid-cycle review given that there are already safeguards in place, such as the QAA’s Concerns Scheme, for institutions which have continuing issues to address between reviews. HEFCE is also asking the QAA to review those providers with a shorter track record of assuring quality and standards at a more frequent interval of four years. A small number of respondents to the consultation called for consideration of a ten-year review cycle for institutions with a longer track record of assuring their quality and standards, but HEFCE has concluded that the arguments in support of the student interest, continuous enhancement, safeguarding of the international reputation of UK higher education, and regular assessment under our statutory duty outweigh the calls for any longer interval.

Posté par pcassuto à 02:24 - - Permalien [#]


Gifts to UK universities and colleges buck the recession drag experienced by other UK charities

Donating to universities and colleges in the UK is more widespread than ever before, according to a report published by HEFCE today.
‘Review of Philanthropy in UK Higher Education is a landmark report that sets out the success of universities and colleges over recent years in attracting philanthropic gifts from a more diverse range of donors. The report, produced by specialist fundraising consultants More Partnership, shows how universities and colleges have worked hard, with the support of Government, to deliver these gains.
According to the report, central to successful fundraising is the need for universities and colleges to have a clear identity and a compelling case for charitable support, which aligns with the institutional mission and with the interests of donors. Crucial to success is understanding what motivates donors to give. The most cited reasons are that they wish to see their donations making a real difference to students, and that they wish to contribute to the advancement of knowledge.
The review also highlights the importance of leadership from within universities and colleges for successful and sustained fundraising. Whereas in the past higher education looked to the US for good practice in fundraising, there is now a lot of expertise within the UK to be celebrated. There is potential to develop this pool of fundraising professionals, and encourage fundraising as an attractive career option.
The review also challenges conventional thinking around what makes for successful fundraising. The review makes a number of recommendations addressed to universities and colleges, to the Government and to HEFCE. It also sets out the challenges for the next decade, emphasising that fundraising is a long-term game that requires ongoing work in order to retain the support of donors.
Professor Shirley Pearce, Chair of the Review Group, said:

‘There has been a step-change in philanthropic giving to higher education over recent years. Successful institutions can be found right across the sector. They have shown strong leadership and have aligned their philanthropic goals to their academic strategy. Increasingly the UK is developing a body of good practice in fundraising and is developing the people it will need for the future. There is a real sense of momentum and this must be maintained. If the current trajectory continues, UK higher education institutions can expect to receive up to £2 billion per annum from some 630,000 donors by 2022'.

HEFCE Chief Executive, Sir Alan Langlands, said:

‘This report highlights the strong and continuing tradition of philanthropic giving to higher education. This is an important source of discretionary income, supporting activities beyond those met from core funding streams. The real beneficiaries here are those students whose lives have been changed and those who gain from the application of the knowledge created through the generosity of donors. We will do all we can to support the implementation of the report’s recommendations’.

Notes
  1. The review can be found on the HEFCE web-site. A four-page summary is also available below. 
    Summary of key messages and recommendations Download the Review of philanthropy summary
  2. The review of philanthropy was set up in January 2012 by HEFCE to address the next decade’s challenges in increasing voluntary giving to higher education. The review was chaired by Professor Shirley Pearce, former Vice‑Chancellor of Loughborough University. The other review members were:
    • Nick Blinco, Director of Development and Alumni Relations, University of Birmingham
    • Rory Brooks, Founder, Rory and Elizabeth Brooks Foundation
    • Professor Sir Richard Trainor, Principal, King’s College London
    • Martin Williams, Director of Higher Education Strategy, Department for Business, Innovation and Skills.
  3. Fundraising consultancy, More Partnership, was commissioned by HEFCE to produce the report following review of data and relevant literature, interviews with institutions and donors, and an open consultation with stakeholders.

Posté par pcassuto à 02:21 - - Permalien [#]

New web-site will help students decide what and where to study

HEFCE logoStudents applying to university will have more information at their fingertips than ever before to help them make choices about courses and where to study.
Today, the Business Secretary Vince Cable is launching a new web-site that features a standardised set of data called the Key Information Set (KIS). The completely revised Unistats web-site provides extensive information for over 31,000 courses in the UK, including student satisfaction ratings, graduate salaries and employment, tuition fees and financial support, and the cost of accommodation.
The new KIS data have been collated after consulting students about the information they find most useful when they are choosing higher education courses. The data for each course link directly to the relevant course webpage, which provides more detail on what the course contains and how it will be taught.
For the first time prospective students will be able to search and compare information about courses across the UK, focusing on the factors that are most important for them. They will also be able to create a shortlist of their favourite courses and create a detailed comparison page, to make it easier to compare their options. Results from the 2012 National Students’ Survey, published today, will also be included in the site.
Dr Cable said:

'Applying to university is a big decision and we want to ensure that all students, whatever their background, have the key facts at their fingertips to help them make the right choice for them. The introduction of the Key Information Set represents a major step forward for students, their parents, and their school and college advisers.'

HEFCE Chief Executive, Sir Alan Langlands, said:

'This the first time that students will have ready access to reliable, impartial information in an easily accessible format. I greatly appreciate the hard work and commitment of universities and colleges in providing the data and enhancing the information that is available about higher education.'

Professor Janet Beer, Vice-Chancellor of Oxford Brookes University and Chair of the Higher Education Public Information Steering Group which led the development of the Key Information sets, said:

'Research into the information students most want to see has underpinned the development of Key Information Sets. The KIS includes the information that students say they need to make informed choices and that is published where they want to see it.
'Of course Key Information Sets do not provide the complete picture and should not be used as the sole basis for making a decision where to study, that was never the intention. They provide an excellent starting point for anyone considering a degree and the basis for further investigation. I’m hugely confident they will be a success.'

Rachel Wenstone, NUS Vice President (Higher Education) said:

'The Key Information Set is a new addition to the wide variety of resources students need to make sure they make the right application choices.
'This information needs to be combined with an understanding of the learning environment, the relationship between students and staff, as well as the role of student representation, all of which are such important factors in empowering individuals to make the right choices for them.
'We need to see a continued commitment from the higher education sector to provide increasingly relevant and contextualised information to prospective applicants, and this should be seen as another step on that journey.'

Dr Cable will see the new Unistats site go live during a visit to Strode College in Street, Somerset this morning.
Notes

  1. The higher education (HE) White Paper 'Students at the Heart of the System' (June 2011) set out the expectation that higher education institutions would provide a standard set of comparable information about their courses (the Key Information Set), by September 2012.
  2. The KIS covers full-time and part-time undergraduate higher education courses in England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland for 2013-14 which subscribe to the Quality Assurance Agency for Higher Education (QAA). It also covers undergraduate programmes taught through further education colleges in England and Wales (this applies to colleges funded indirectly through a higher education institution and for courses HEFCE funds directly). The KIS does not cover short courses (one year full-time equivalent or less), postgraduate courses, those delivered entirely overseas, or closed courses.
  3. Developments to the KIS have been made in collaboration with the Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE), the Higher Education Funding Council for Wales (HEFCW), the Scottish Funding Council (SFC), the Department of Employment and Learning, Northern Ireland, Universities UK, GuildHE and the Association of Colleges. Unistats covers all HEIs in the UK and HE courses in further education colleges in England and Wales. It is overseen by the Higher Education Public Information Steering Group (HEPISG), chaired by Professor Janet Beer, Vice-Chancellor of Oxford Brookes University.
  4. The development of the KIS has resulted from the following research, consultation and pilot study:
    1. The views of 2,000 prospective and current students (collected during research in 2010 by Oakleigh Consulting and Staffordshire University)
    2. Responses to the consultation HEFCE 2010/31
    3. Four expert working groups considered specific parts of the KIS
    4. A pilot study with eight institutions
    5. User testing in late 2011 and early 2012 across England, Scotland and Wales with more than 200 prospective HE students.
  5. More information can be found on our page about KIS research and development
  6. Unistats data will also be used by other web-site providers. For example, Which? have already launched their guide and will shortly be updating their data to include Unistats data. The raw data that underlies the Unistats web-site is available for analysts and developers to download from the Higher Education Statistics Agency.
  7. A separate press release is available today on the results of the 2012 National Student Survey (NSS). The NSS is one of the components of the KIS.

Posté par pcassuto à 02:17 - - Permalien [#]

Checking student qualifications

HEFCE logoAn online service has been launched to help employers check graduates’ qualifications and recognised degree-awarding bodies.
The Higher Education Degree Datacheck (HEDD) can be used to check that a UK higher education provider existed and was approved by the UK Government at any given date going back to 1990. Every UK university and college is listed in the database to provide a check on degree awarding status.
In response to a query, HEDD provides contact details to direct the user to the appropriate university or college records office. The service is also particularly useful for employers and postgraduate course providers who want to verify degree results, and can be used by graduates to request transcripts and replacement certificates.
Three universities, Manchester, Sheffield Hallam and Essex, have signed up and submitted their student records to the HEDD service and several more are in the pipeline. Together they are generating around 350 enquiries per month. Over 90 per cent of the enquiries are from screening and recruitment agencies, with almost half of these from overseas.
The main benefits of the service are fast and reliable verification, and improved efficiency. Universities using the system have reported a 50 per cent reduction in enquiry processing time as well as a positive effect on staff morale and productivity. The service reduces the burden of work on Registry teams by handling all customer service activity and providing automatic verification, where student data is available. Verification enquiries have been increasing significantly each year and cost English universities alone over £2 million in Registry resources.
Katie Britton, Verifications Manager at the University of Manchester, said:

‘Having HEDD has made a big impact on us – it’s much more convenient and easy to use than our old processes were, and it’s freed up so much time to spend on the other jobs we have to do.’

The service is one of several projects funded by HEFCE to support greater efficiency at universities and colleges and reduce costs over the medium term.The HEDD web-site provides more information, or contact s.mcgovern@prospects.ac.uk.
Notes

  1. HEDD is run by Graduate Prospects, the trading arm of Higher Education Careers Services Unit, which works to improve careers education and advice for graduates of UK universities. Graduate Prospects provides a range of shared services to the HE sector. The HEDD team is working with stakeholders including BIS, the CBI and the NUS, who have formally endorsed the service.
  2. Further details about HEFCE’s shared services projects are available here.

Posté par pcassuto à 02:12 - - Permalien [#]

Learning how to Teach in Higher Education: a Matter of Excellence

http://www.inrp.fr/vst/images/logo-ife.jpgLearning how to Teach in Higher Education: a Matter of Excellence, n°64, september 2011. Author: ENDRIZZI, Laure. Download PDF.
Abstract :

As a result of the massification of higher education and the increasing competitiveness in European and global higher education, many questions surrounding teaching and research quality have emerged in recent years. The primacy of research over teaching is increasingly debated. The higher education profession has changed significantly, with the emergence of a more explicit teaching role in universities and the development of more diverse and more active teaching methods, although work in this area remains largely uncoordinated, particularly in the social and human sciences. Though still limited in scope, original initiatives are beginning to emerge to promote the teaching component of higher education. Today, teaching excellence tends to be the main focus of attention, reigniting debates over higher education academics’ training and support.
We can no longer afford to assume that a good researcher automatically makes a good teacher or to think that ‘banking’ on self-training is a viable policy simply because it is consistent with the professional habitus of academics. We know that representations have a direct impact on teaching activities and that a learning-based approach is more effective than a content-based approach. Judging by recent initiatives taken in a number of countries and the increasing amount of research in this area, there appears to be an emerging consensus among both policy-makers and researchers on the importance of ‘pedagogical development’ among higher education staff. However, it is important to note that this trend has been encouraged by institutions rather than by academics, who, despite having training needs in areas such as strategies for teaching large classes and the development of more active teaching methods (based in particular on ICTs), are rarely prepared to devote more than two days a year to teacher training.
The first theoretical studies on educational development were conducted in North America in the late 1980s. The SoTL (Scholarship of Teaching and Learning) has had an undeniable impact on both curricula and core skills. The aim is to bridge the gap between teaching and research and to show, through self-reflective practice and participation in action research, that teaching can meet the same standards as research. Pedagogical development involves a range of formal and informal approaches. The idea of compulsory training to enter the higher education profession or to obtain tenure has been actively promoted in a number of countries (including Australia, Norway, Sweden, and the United Kingdom). In some countries, the decision lies with institutions (Finland, Netherlands, New Zealand, and the United States). In other countries, recent efforts have tended to focus on support and accompaniment (Belgium, Canada), while in France the main focus so far has been on doctoral training, notably with the CIES (Centres d’Initiation à l’Enseignement Supérieur).
The point is not to choose between ‘initial’ and ‘continuing’ training, but to combine them. As far as induction is concerned, research suggests that a training period of at least one year (combined with teaching) is required to develop new methods, but also, and above all, to change representations of learning. The aim may also be to promote ‘scientific’ teaching practices, to foster networking and to help higher education teachers understand the institutional context. Making higher education teacher training compulsory requires national guidelines and frameworks. Teacher training can only be effective in a favorable structural and cultural environment. The role of departments in particular is crucial to fostering closer links between research and teaching and encouraging exchanges between new entrants to the profession and more experienced staff, for example through mentoring systems and communities of practice.
While there is no formal continuing training system at present (in the sense of compulsory training), a wide range of initiatives have emerged in this area, although these are mostly local actions involving little or no inter-institutional coordination. There are conflicting views on whether to promote local actions in response to staff training needs or to opt for a more traditional form of service provision. Some advocate short tailored programs based on reflexive and contextualized practice, while others defend the idea of a more traditional form of training based on repeated interventions aimed at all staff. In either case, subject-specific interventions are considered to be a key part of training provision. Ultimately, the point is to promote multidimensional service delivery that integrates these approaches as part of a global approach to teacher training. In other words, it is not enough to provide lessons and conferences; it is also important to develop project support and action research and to develop tools and methods to assess teaching.
In higher education institutions, pedagogical development is generally the responsibility of one or several central bodies, which depend for their effective functioning on budget and resource allocations. The cases of Britain and Australia are good examples of issues in this area. In both countries, although the system was formalized several years ago, the services currently provided have yet to reach full maturity, especially in traditional universities. In France, the SUP (Services Universitaires de Pédagogie) are a relatively recent development. Created in the early 2000s, SUP are currently found in only 20% of universities and have only just formed a network. Regardless of the configuration of training, research suggests that there is a need for strong leadership (at both central and local levels) and for appropriate measurement tools to assess the impact of actions on both staff and the general functioning of institutions.
The question of the professionalization of academic advisors – and therefore their training – is a key issue in this respect. However, there are other important issues that also need to be addressed. Studies on the dynamics of change in higher education institutions have shown that relying on assessments of teaching and reward systems is not enough to promote skill development. While the role of individual actors is undeniable (particularly the role of academic leaders), departments and doctoral schools also have a key part to play. The point is to promote internal knowledge transfer in order to develop a learning organization capable of regenerating itself. Prior to this, higher education institutions must recognize that there is a problem that needs to be solved, while remaining careful not to exacerbate the tension between research and teaching.
Higher education teaching: a changing profession
The demand for excellence in teaching

Higher education has undergone unprecedented changes over the last 30 years, as shown by various studies by UNESCO (Global University Network for Innovation or GUNI) and the OECD (Institutional Management in Higher Education programme or IMHE). The image of universities as places exclusively devoted to knowledge production has changed, and the primacy of research over teaching is increasingly becoming a matter of debate.
These changes are part of a movement toward educational and pedagogical innovation – a trend promoted in Europe by the Bologna process and driven by the massification of higher education and by the increased social pressure on higher education institutions to ensure that the skills and knowledge they provide meet the needs of society (Romainville & Rege Colet, 2006).
At a meso level, the significant impact of ICT in higher education has contributed to promoting student-centered teaching models (Langevin et al., 2007), while at a micro level, the inherent tensions of the higher education profession have reignited the debate over research and teaching (Musselin, 2008).
In Europe, new questions surrounding the quality of teaching emerged in the 1990s, notably with the creation of the International Network for Quality Assurance Agencies in Higher Education (INQAAHE). The publication of the Dearing Report (United Kingdom, 1997) was another major landmark: for the first time, an official report explicitly challenged the link commonly made between excellence in research and excellence in teaching (Fanghanel & Trowler, 2007).
The perception of a close link between teaching and learning – a view held by a number of English-speaking scholars (Säljo, Entwistle, Ramsden, Prosser, Trigwell) and promoted in French-speaking Europe by authors such as Rege Colet and Romainville – favored the emergence of teaching resource centers and professional teacher development (de Ketele, 2010).
More recently, in the mid-2000s, the European Association for Quality Assurance in Higher Education (ENQA) addressed the question of excellence in teaching by defining guidelines for quality assurance management in European higher education (ENQA, 2005).
A recent study by the OECD (Hénard, 2010) identified a number of initiatives aimed at promoting teaching quality in member countries while emphasizing their empirical (and even experimental) nature. According to Hénard, the consolidation of these initiatives involves a range of measures, including support for the initiatives taken by the teaching profession.
These new directions represent a major challenge for higher education institutions. How should we define quality? What makes a good lesson? What makes a good teacher? It is not enough merely to assess outcomes; it is also important to focus on processes. In addition to the quality of teaching, it is also important to focus on questions related to the quality of teachers, including selection and promotion criteria, initial and continuing teacher training, and profiles of innovators in teaching (Parmentier, 2006). Recent research suggests that quality assurance and  assessment provide a lever to promote the professional development of higher education teachers. Download PDF.
See also Savoir enseigner dans le supérieur: un enjeu d'excellence pédagogique and Le projet professionnel dans l’enseignement supérieur.

Posté par pcassuto à 01:49 - - Permalien [#]

Economic and societal cost of Europe's youth not in employment, education or training (NEETs)

With unemployment levels for young people at unprecedented levels across the EU, a new report published today by Eurofound reveals how the greatest urgency lies with the 14 million young people currently not in employment, education or training (NEETs). Eurofound’s latest comparative research findings on NEETs show that the economic loss to society of not integrating NEETs is estimated at €153 billion, in addition to the inestimable costs for their disengagement from society in general. The report’s findings will be presented for the first time in full at the EU Presidency Conference on Employment Priorities in Nicosia, Cyprus, on 'Developing sustainable youth employment policies in an era of fiscal constraints'.
Young people and 'NEETs'
The aim of this project is to investigate the current situation of young people in Europe, focusing specifically on those who are not in employment, education or training, and to understand the economic and social consequences of their disengagement from the labour market and education. Member State initiatives to help reintegrate young people into the labour market are also investigated.
Definition: what is a NEET?

The term NEET is used to describe young people who are not engaged in any form of employment, education or training. The term has come into the policy debate in recent years due to disproportionate impact of the recession on young people (under 30 years old). The unemployment rate for those under thirty is nearly double the average rate. See full infographic   Download the full report.
Who is at risk?

Those with low levels of education are three times more likely to be NEET than those with third-level education. The risk is 70% higher for young people from an immigration background than nationals while having a disability or health issue is also a strong risk factor. See full infographic.
Rates of NEETs across Europe

Some 14 million young people are not in employment, education or training across the EU as a whole. However rates vary widely from from around 5.5% of 15-24 year olds in the Netherlands to 22.7% in Italy. See full infographic.
The cost of NEETs to society

The economic cost of not integrating NEETs is estimated at over €150 billion, or 1.2% of GDP, in 2011 figures. Some countries, such as Bulgaria, Cyprus, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia and Poland are paying 2% or more of their GDP. See full infographic.
Disengagement from society

The economic cost is not the only one. Young people not in employment, education or training are at higher risk of being socially and politically alienated. They have a lower level of level of interest and engagement in politics and lower levels of trust. Even in those countries where NEETs are more politically engaged (such as Spain) they do not identify with the main actors.See full infographic.
Policy measures
EU Member States have tried a number of measures to prevent young people from becoming NEET and to reintegrate those who are NEETs. The involvement of a range of stakeholders in the design and delivery of youth employment measures is essential. In particular, a strong level of engagement with employers and their representatives is needed for measures that focus on fostering their beneficiaries’ employability. Successful policies are innovative. They introduce new ways of reaching out to their target groups, with outreach activities forming an important part of efforts to engage disfranchised young people, while incentives, ‘branding’ and marketing campaigns can be useful in the context of more universal youth employment services.See full infographic.

Posté par pcassuto à 01:30 - - Permalien [#]
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