En 2001, elle devient conseillère technique de Bernard Kouchner, ministre de la Santé, avant de rejoindre en 2002 l’Afssaps (Agence française de sécurité sanitaire des Produits de Santé) en tant que directrice générale adjointe.
De 2006 à 2007, elle a occupé les fonctions de directrice adjointe chargée de la coordination et du contrôle interne à l’AP-HP (Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris).
Elle a ensuite été directrice du cabinet de Martin Hirsch, Haut commissaire aux Solidarités actives contre la pauvreté, de 2007 à 2010.
Elle a été secrétaire générale des ministères chargés des affaires sociales de juillet 2010 à septembre 2012 avant d’être nommée déléguée générale à l’emploi et à la formation professionnelle (DGEFP) le 3 octobre 2012.
The aim of this chapter is to bring together and comment official statistics and indicators that make up educational targets that are increasingly favoured in the European Union Policy context from the Lisbon Strategy to the Europe 2020 strategy. Focusing on the call for making young people more employable, the chapter relies on Amartya Sen’s Capability Approach and in particular on his key idea of ‘informational basis of judgement’ to reveal the postulates behind the benchmarks that assess progress toward the Education and Training Strategy. Taking up this plea, the chapter starts out by giving a brief description of the Lisbon Strategy as well as the Europe 2020 Strategy. In this perspective, it reports what progress in education and training– or lack of it – has taken place. The subsequent section introduces the concepts of “capability” and “Informational basis of judgement” derived from Amartya Sen’s Capability Approach (CA) in order to shed light on the normative postulates underlying the benchmarks promoted by the European Commission . One main focus lies in addressing limitations of these indicators with the aim of providing a practical instrument with which to assess and compare education and training performance. The chapter concludes by offering some thoughts for an alternative set of indicators that employs insights from the capability approach drawn from the work of Amartya Sen. Full Text: HTML PDF.
1. Sans diplôme, l’accès à l’emploi reste très difficile
Trois ans après leur sortie du système éducatif, le taux de chômage des jeunes sans diplôme atteint 40%. La priorité est donc de lutter contre le décrochage ou de proposer des formes de "raccrochage". Mais lorsque l'on regarde dans le détail les difficultés d'insertion, la non détention du diplôme est moins préjudiciable au niveau IV (bacs généraux et technologiques) qu’au niveau V, sachant que jusqu’à présent, la question ne se posait pas pour les bacs pros puisqu’ils étaient nécessairement titulaires d'un BEP (plus rarement un CAP). Avec la réforme de la voie professionnelle et le bac pro à 3 ans, on peut s'interroger sur la valeur des certifications intermédiaires sur le marché du travail, pour les jeunes qui n'arriveront pas à obtenir leur baccalauréat.
2. Avec le diplôme, la spécialité de formation est un autre facteur décisif sur le marché du travail
Certaines spécialités de formation, ayant des gros effectifs, combinent très souvent difficultés d'insertion et orientation par défaut. La spécialité de formation peut avoir des effets plus importants que le niveau de diplôme. De plus, les emplois se transforment et les sorties à certains niveaux ne semblent plus forcément correspondre aux exigences des employeurs. C'est de plus en plus le cas pour les formations dans le tertiaire administratif au niveau IV.
3. De nouveaux besoins de qualification en perspective
Ces prochaines années, les emplois qui seront créés ne seront pas forcément tous très qualifiés. Par exemple, des études prospectives prévoient de fortes créations d’emplois dans les domaines de l’aide à domicile et des emplois d’aide-soignant. Se pose la question de leur professionnalisation, notamment pour de nombreuses professions qui connaissent un renouvellement de génération. L'enjeu n'est pas de créer des diplômes dans une posture adéquationniste, en multipliant des formations initiales au niveau V ou au niveau IV, mais plutôt de construire des parcours d’évolution pour éviter l’enfermement dans des emplois peu qualifiés en s’appuyant sur l’accès à des formations qualifiantes.
4. L’apprentissage comme solution?
Les sortants de l'apprentissage bénéficient en général de meilleures conditions d'insertion. La portée générale de ce dispositif est cependant à nuancer selon l’origine et le parcours des élèves. De plus, en période de crise, les places en apprentissage sont souvent moins nombreuses. Enfin, le dispositif est coûteux et financé en partie par des fonds publics: il faut se poser les questions en termes d'efficacité, d'efficience et d'équité. Dans ce cadre, n'a-t-on pas intérêt à cibler l'apprentissage sur les plus bas niveaux de qualification?
5. Une déqualification des emplois mais un travail qui n'est pas forcément déqualifié
Si l’accès à des postes d’employés ou d’ouvriers qualifiés n'est pas aujourd'hui la norme pour les jeunes diplômés de l’enseignement professionnel, le travail et les fonctions exercées ne sont pas pour autant non qualifiés. Dans le domaine des services par exemple, des activités considérées comme peu qualifiées se diversifient et s'adaptent à des contextes d'exercice de plus en variés. Se pose cependant la question de la reconnaissance sociale de cette qualification du travail.
Jean-François Giret est directeur de l'IREDU, et chercheur associé au Céreq. Son texte complet : La valorisation de l’enseignement professionnel sur le marché du travail: constats et perspectives. Note sur l'insertion professionnelle des diplômés de l'enseignement professionnel a été présenté lors de l'atelier "Valorisation de l'enseignement professionnel" qu'il a coanimé.
1. Without a diploma, access to employment remains very difficult
Three years after leaving the educational system, the rate of youth unemployment reached 40% without a diploma.
Jean-François Giret is director IREDU and associate researcher at Céreq. Its full text: The value of vocational education on the labor market: Evidence and perspectives. Note on the employability of graduates of vocational education was presented at the workshop "Valuation of vocational education" which he co-hosted. More...
By Elizabeth Redden. If it seems like all the university presidents and vice provosts are visiting Brazil these days, that’s because they are. Just last week, a delegation from the University of Michigan made the trip and, a month earlier, representatives from 66 colleges traveled to Brasilia, São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro in what the U.S. Department of Commerce billed as its “largest education services trade mission ever.” In April, nearly a third of Canada’s university presidents traveled to Brazil on a weeklong trip that produced 75 new partnerships and scholarships (on paper, that is).
“In Canada, we talk about the ‘nanosecond of opportunity’ for working with Brazil,” said Paul Davidson, president of the Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada. “This is not something we can get around to. This is something we need to do now.”
A number of forces have converged to inspire the interest in Brazil. Its rapidly emerging economy is the world’s sixth- or seventh-largest, according to different assessments, and there's no shortage of buzz about how the BRIC countries -- Brazil, Russia, India and China -- will be major world powers in the future.
Top 400 Universities
The Times Higher Education World University Rankings powered by Thomson Reuters are the only global university performance tables to judge world class universities across all of their core missions - teaching, research, knowledge transfer and international outlook. The top universities rankings employ 13 carefully calibrated performance indicators to provide the most comprehensive and balanced comparisons available, which are trusted by students, academics, university leaders, industry and governments.
The Video: http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/world-university-rankings/ THE World University Rankings, The Times Higher Education, Results 2012-2013
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By Elizabeth Gibney for Times Higher Education. Developing countries are striving to expand doctoral education, but may struggle to keep up with the demand for Ph.D.s.
That is the conclusion of a European Universities Association report on the first comprehensive survey of trends in doctoral education across East Asia, Latin America and Southern Africa.
According to the study, there is a striking convergence in national policies towards doctoral education both in those regions and within Europe. Not only has the number of doctorates awarded surged but countries and institutions across the world are seeking to boost them for the same reason to develop society, Thomas Ekman Jørgensen, head the EUA’s Council for Doctoral Education and the report’s author, told Times Higher Education.
Figures show that just 10 institutions were named among the top 100 in the world compared with 14 two years ago. It also emerged that the majority of universities listed in the international rankings had seen their global standing fall in the last 12 months.
Data published by Times Higher Education magazine showed that Oxford was named as the joint second best university in the world behind the California Institute of Technology in the US, which was top for the second year running. Cambridge was seventh - down one - and Imperial College London retained eighth position, according to the tables published by Times Higher Education magazine. But experts warned that - beyond a small elite - the standing of British universities had suffered in the face of fierce competition from other nations, particularly in the Far East. More...
The Times Higher Education rankings will be released tomorrow and universities around the world will be clamouring to find out how they place. As all academics know, rankings are closely tied to research. Where a university ranks depends largely on how many academics got into how many journals in the year since the rankings were last posted. But many prospective university students would be surprised to find that the priority given to rankings and research often means their needs are the last to be met.
Nothing has changed
I have been an academic for nearly forty years, and recently, while going through my old papers, I came across the following excerpt:
“[Academics] come to the university with virtually no experience… [They are] expected not only to teach but to plan our teaching. The only analogous situation I can think of is parenthood; and yet we are being paid to be university teachers… With the stimulus of the [Inquiry into Education and Training] Williams Report, it is now time for the university administrators to pull their head out of the sand and do something.”
This was not a recent observation of mine, this paper was published in 1980 – 32 years ago. So little has changed that I could have written almost exactly the same paper today. Students might reasonably assume that, given the substantial monies provided by government to fund tertiary education, university managers would place high priority on improving the student experience in their institution. Sadly, with a few significant exceptions this is not the case. Research rules and our university leaders put much more effort into climbing the higher education rankings than creating a transparent reward system for their staff that excel in teaching.
Two steps forward
Although there are many outstanding teachers in our universities, ask the majority of Australian academics why they do not put more effort into teaching and they will reply that they are under continuing pressure from their Vice-Chancellors, Deans and Heads of School to lift their research performance. Universities claim to have promotion systems that reward excellence in teaching but in reality most staff know that the key to success is the number of research grants and publications they achieve. An academic’s research output is much more important to universities than evidence they have created a truly outstanding learning experience for their students.
Over the last decade or so, there have been efforts to change this dynamic and place a greater emphasis on teaching in our universities – the Learning and Teaching Performance Fund provided incentives to improve teaching quality and the creation of the Australian Learning and Teaching Council provided some symmetry with the work of the well-established Australian Research Council. Alas, these initiatives are no more and we are back we were 32 years ago.
Is there light on the horizon?
When my grandchildren go through my boxes in another decade or two will they too be struck by the continuing status quo of little incentive for better university teaching or will things have changed?
As an optimist, I can see a way forward. The recently-formed Tertiary Education Quality Standards Agency (TEQSA) could stimulate the much-needed change in environment. In The Conversation there have been alarms raised by some university leaders that TEQSA will be an unnecessary bureaucratic burden for established universities. They argue they should be left alone and the Agency should mainly protect the public from the risk of shonky private providers. But I say not enough has been done to bring teaching to the forefront, so let the Agency play its part. The Teaching Standards to be developed by the Higher Education Standards Panel lead by Professor Alan Robson will be vital in this.
This quality assurance need not be too onerous. The standards help universities put in place a transparent reward system for excellence in teaching, including promotion criteria. This would give hardworking academics hope that the prevailing culture will change. A university, for its part, would be required to have its promotion policy and criteria publicly available (say on the web) and provide evidence of its implementation.
If universities are required to adhere to the Standard in order to be registered as a tertiary institution then university leaders will be prompted to review their priorities and insist that the Teaching Standards are fulfilled to the ultimate benefit of their students. To assure quality, TEQSA should be able to request a small expert panel to visit a university at short notice to review their policies and assess progress. Universities don’t need a glossy portfolio that takes months to prepare, just a regularly-updated website that contains relevant policies and data to demonstrate that policies are being implemented (i.e the number of promotions based on outstanding teaching compared to outstanding research performance).
Students should demand more
All potential students and their parents should demand evidence that their prospective university takes teaching seriously. All universities should aim to convince potential students that they will be provided with a first class learning experience; not simply be herded into lecture theatres. Of course, excellence in research is important. I used to love researching and I feel the students benefited from my research. But excellence in teaching and excellence in research are not mutually exclusive. It is just that there is an urgent need, as there has been for these past 32 years, for a better balance between effort put into teaching compared to that put into research.
If universities want to lift their game, they should raise the profile of excellence in teaching. After all, there are more ways than ever of learning and more institutions than ever offering opportunities to learn. Those without a clearly demonstrable commitment to teaching quality will surely lose out.
French conservative member of the European Parliament, Alain Lamassoure, who heads the budget committee, said that "the European social fund is bankrupt and can't refund member states.
"Next week it will be Erasmus, the student programme, at the end of the month, the Research and Innovation Fund."
Speaking at a news conference, Lamassoure blamed the shortfall on governments that fought for a four-billion-euro cut in the EU budget, in line with austerity policies across the 27-nation bloc. Budget Commissioner Janusz Lewandowski is due to ask member states for "several billion" extra in the coming weeks to plug a deficit Lamassoure estimated at 10 billion euros. Failing new contributions, the EU executive would be unable to reimburse monies owed to different member states, said Lamassoure. He estimated that the losses could amount to 400 million euros for France, 600 million euros for Greece, 900 million euros for Spain and up to 200 million euros for Britain.
"These countries have a right to these monies which are reimbursements. It isn't lost but they will have to wait to recover it," he said.
Britain, which led efforts to trim the 2012 EU budget, was shooting itself in the foot, he added, denouncing what he termed "an absurd situation."
The situation, however, is unlikely to change given that seven nations -- Austria, Britain, France, Germany, Finland, The Netherlands and Sweden -- have refused to sign on to European Commission proposals to increase expenditure in the 2013 budget by 6.8 percent, or nine billion euros, to 138 billion euros. The seven are net contributors to the budget, meaning that they contribute more than they receive from the EU.
Finland, France and Germany have called for a five-billion-euro cut in 2013 spending, including 3.5 billion euros that were destined for spending on economic growth, jobs and competition policies. The ERASMUS Programme - studying in Europe and more.
While some students protested an annual tuition increase and what they describe as poor quality of education at the American University in Cairo, the private university’s ranking has improved. The UK-based ranking site QS World University Rankings showed its overall ranking jumped from around 600th in 2011 to 398th in 2012.
In response to the change in ranking, Sherif Abdul Qader, an AUC physics graduate currently applying for a PhD abroad, wrote a Facebook status recently saying, “This is extremely significant, but makes sense to anyone who knows what's happening. AUC has been keen to recruit highest profile professors from abroad, and that explains two things: the jump in the ranking, and the seven percent increase in tuition.”
Regardless of the figures, university ranking is not one of the key criteria students in Egypt rely on to choose where to obtain their higher education. Social prestige, school acceptance restrictions and financial capabilities are among the top reasons students may choose a university in Egypt.
Farah al-Shafie, currently a freshman at AUC, says, “When my parents spoke of college the only two options for them were AUC and AUD,” referring to the American University in Cairo and in Dubai. When Shafie was applying to university in 2011, Cairo University was 50 spots above the American University in Cairo.
Another current freshman at AUC, Farah Heiba, says she thought of Cairo University when applying to college but realized her International Baccalaureate High School diploma put a limitation on her. This meant her options were AUC or any other international university. “Had the revolution not happened, I would have left for a university in Canada,” Heiba says. “It remains an option.”
Heiba says she wanted to go to Cairo University because the reputation of its political science program was very strong. Since she was stuck with AUC as her only other choice, she looked into ranking when she explored other options internationally.
QS World University Rankings looks into academic reputation, employer reputation, faculty-student ratio, citations per faculty, international faculty ratio and international student ratio. One of the most influential international university rankings, QS ranks 700 of the world’s top universities.
The 200 spot jump in its international ranking is evident in the new hires AUC made this year, current students say. Abdul Qader told Egypt Independent, “[AUC President] Lisa Anderson recruited very expensive people this year.” He named a few professors in the science departments who he says are extremely influential names in their fields.
A university ranking goes up with the number of published professors it employs. The professors’ published material is also more influential depending on which journals published their work.
Israel, for example, has over five universities in the top 200 universities in the world. Abdul Qader says, “In my field, the faculty at most of these universities are extremely well-known, published professors in very highly respected journals.”
Meanwhile, Saudi Arabian King Saud University is ranked 197, ahead of all Egyptian universities that made it to the ranking.
Although many AUC professors also work at Cairo University, their published work contributes to a higher ranking for AUC but not Cairo University. Recently Cairo University has not been investing in research or their professors as much as it has in previous years, so these professors, do not publish or conduct their research under the auspices of Cairo University. As such, while the ranking of AUC increases, Cairo University remains at a lower ranking internationally.
“There is a general problem with education in Egypt, either way you end up having to pay more for better education,” Dina Hamdy, an AUC graduate says. “As a private university, AUC invests in better facilities.” However, she believes many programs in Cairo University are just as strong as at AUC, if not stronger but, “the faculty to student ratio is one of the major factors students look at when choosing AUC over Cairo University.”