Donating to universities and colleges in the UK is more widespread than ever before, according to a report published by HEFCE today.
‘Review of Philanthropy in UK Higher Education’ is a landmark report that sets out the success of universities and colleges over recent years in attracting philanthropic gifts from a more diverse range of donors. The report, produced by specialist fundraising consultants More Partnership, shows how universities and colleges have worked hard, with the support of Government, to deliver these gains.
Professor Shirley Pearce, Chair of the Review Group, said:
‘There has been a step-change in philanthropic giving to higher education over recent years. Successful institutions can be found right across the sector. They have shown strong leadership and have aligned their philanthropic goals to their academic strategy. Increasingly the UK is developing a body of good practice in fundraising and is developing the people it will need for the future. There is a real sense of momentum and this must be maintained. If the current trajectory continues, UK higher education institutions can expect to receive up to £2 billion per annum from some 630,000 donors by 2022'.
HEFCE Chief Executive, Sir Alan Langlands, said:
‘This report highlights the strong and continuing tradition of philanthropic giving to higher education. This is an important source of discretionary income, supporting activities beyond those met from core funding streams. The real beneficiaries here are those students whose lives have been changed and those who gain from the application of the knowledge created through the generosity of donors. We will do all we can to support the implementation of the report’s recommendations’.
- The review can be found on the HEFCE web-site. A four-page summary is also available below.
Summary of key messages and recommendations
- The review of philanthropy was set up in January 2012 by HEFCE to address the next decade’s challenges in increasing voluntary giving to higher education. The review was chaired by Professor Shirley Pearce, former Vice‑Chancellor of Loughborough University. The other review members were:
- Nick Blinco, Director of Development and Alumni Relations, University of Birmingham
- Rory Brooks, Founder, Rory and Elizabeth Brooks Foundation
- Professor Sir Richard Trainor, Principal, King’s College London
- Martin Williams, Director of Higher Education Strategy, Department for Business, Innovation and Skills.
- Fundraising consultancy, More Partnership, was commissioned by HEFCE to produce the report following review of data and relevant literature, interviews with institutions and donors, and an open consultation with stakeholders.
The public money contributed through HEFCE’s leadership, governance and management fund has enabled collaboration between the Environmental Association for Universities and Colleges (EAUC), Staffordshire University and 20 other partner organisations including Universities UK and the Carbon Trust. It is hoped that this collaboration will in itself create further efficiencies.
While many institutions have worked to create their own sustainability programmes, information on this work has not previously been readily available as a resource, despite its potential usefulness. The Sustainability Exchange provides a venue for institutions across the sector to pool their expertise through online facilities including community forums, news updates, an events diary, best practice guides, toolkits, reports, research, web-based seminars and videos.
Steve Egan, HEFCE’s Deputy Chief Executive and lead on sustainable development, said:
More about the Sustainability Exchange.
‘Higher education has a unique role to play in sustainable development, making a vital contribution to society’s efforts to achieve sustainability. It’s essential that the sector’s collective expertise should be readily available, and therefore we are delighted to have supported this innovative project.’
To support the follow-up and monitoring at the International level of the Belém Framework for Action, UNESCO and its structures were requested by the 6th International Conference on Adult Education (CONFINTEA VI) “to review and update, by 2012, the Recommendation on the Development of Adult Education adopted in Nairobi (1976).” The 1976 Recommendation represents the key normative instrument on adult education, providing guiding principles and a global approach for promoting and developing adult education in UNESCO Member States. Conscious of the fact that to be successful this revision and update process requires support from key stakeholders and actors in adult learning and education world-wide, including representatives from governments, civil society, research institutions and national, regional and international networks, UIL is organizing an online consultation forum from 24 September to 5 October, 2012.
Through the consultation the review process would benefit from the expertise and experiences of a broader spectrum of individuals and institutions working for the development of adult learning and education.
To participate in this consultation you need to be subscribed to the Google group monitoringbfa(at)googlegroups.com You will subsequently receive an e-mail with more background information, including access to relevant documents and all necessary details on this online forum.
El Espacio Común de Educación Superior Tecnológica es el medio por el cual los subsistemas de los Institutos Tecnológicos, las Universidades Politécnicas y las Universidades Tecnológicas, bajo la dirección de la Subsecretaria de Educación Superior de la SEP, se asocian estratégicamente para desarrollar y consolidar actividades académicas y administrativas, de cooperación y acción conjunta, en temas y experiencias de interés común, con la finalidad de crear un ambiente educativo flexible y de libre tránsito.
Establecer un espacio integrado por los Institutos Tecnológicos, las Universidades Tecnológicas y las Universidades Politécnicas, que permita el intercambio y la cooperación, para elevar la calidad de la educación en beneficio de la comunidad estudiantil y académica, así como establecer una plataforma que promueva su internacionalización.
Los procesos de colaboración entre las IES participantes permitirá desarrollar y fortalecer la calidad educativa, a través del reconocimiento mutuo de la competitividad, comparabilidad y compatibilidad de sus programas educativos de nivel licenciatura y posgrado.
Las estrategias y acciones pactadas en el seno de esta alianza, están orientadas esencialmente a elevar la competitividad económica y social de México, a través de una educación superior tecnológica basada en el desarrollo de competencias profesionales y en el aseguramiento de la calidad y la empleabilidad de los egresados de las instituciones participantes.
Articulación de esfuerzos en materia de docencia, investigación, vinculación y gestión social del conocimiento, que posibilitará el diálogo y la cooperación entre las instituciones de educación superior tecnológica de México y del extranjero.
Skill obsolescence – Definition and types
Skill obsolescence is the ‘degree to which professionals lack the up-to-date knowledge or skills necessary to maintain effective performance in their current or future work roles’ (Kaufman, 1974).
There are two main types of skill obsolescence:
- Physical skill obsolescence: physical or cognitive skills and abilities deteriorate due to atrophy or wear and tear;
- Economic skill obsolescence: skills previously utilised in a job are no longer required or have diminished in importance.
Other types include organisational forgetting (loss of firm-specific skills due to worker turnover) and perspectivistic obsolescence (outdated views and beliefs on work and the work environment).
Rapid labour market changes leave too many workers at risk of losing their skills
Most parents who have needed their children’s help with their computer or smartphone have had a feeling of obsolescence – that unnerving sense that their skills are out of date. But family embarrassment is one thing; at work skill obsolescence can be more unforgiving.
Skill obsolescence is an integral part of technological progress and, in many cases, it is not a problem. It is natural that some previously necessary skills are no longer needed as people progress in their careers. However, skill obsolescence has become more important as jobs have become more demanding and complex. As technology progresses, this trend is expected to speed up in the coming years.
To obtain a clearer picture of the largely unexplored question of skill obsolescence, Cedefop launched a pilot survey in four European Union (EU) Member States (Germany, Hungary, the Netherlands and Finland). The survey looked at how many people in work aged between 30 and 55 felt their skills were, or were becoming, obsolete. It also examined the type of skills and people most affected by skill obsolescence and what enterprises and policy-makers can do to reduce it.
Feeling left behind
On average, in the four countries surveyed, a quarter of workers believe that their current skill levels, necessary to perform their job most effectively, were equal to or below those required when they started their current line of work. This figure varies from 30% in Germany to 16% in Finland.
Another survey finding was that an average of 16% of workers across the four countries believes their skills have become outdated in the past two years due to technological developments or structural reorganisation. The two skills identified as most affected are speaking other languages and computer/ICT use.
Around 18 to 20% of workers feel unable to handle important physical aspects of their jobs as well as they could two years ago. This ranges from 13% in Finland to 24% in Germany. Similarly, around 18 to 20% of workers indicated an inability to handle the cognitive, knowledge-related aspects of their job as well as they did two years ago. This ranges from 16% in Hungary to 22% in Finland.
Unsurprisingly, according to the survey, 34% of workers who did not receive any training in the previous year are affected by skill obsolescence, but even 22% of those who had participated in training feel affected by it.
In all four countries, workers whose skill development has stagnated or deteriorated are more likely to worry about losing their job, have a temporary contract and have less chance of career progression. In Germany, around 20% of workers who believe their skills are up to date are afraid of losing their job. This figure rises to 30% among workers who feel their skills are, or are becoming, obsolete.
Those most at risk
Lower-skilled workers, older workers and, obviously, those without opportunity to develop their skills throughout their careers are most at risk of skill obsolescence (Figure 2), but even highly-skilled workers are not immune.
For lower-skilled workers, particularly those in precarious jobs, the threat of skills atrophy and depreciation is greatest. Some 33% of the lower-skilled workers experience a lack of skill development in their present career, compared to around 19% of highly-educated people.
Lower-skilled workers have suffered most from job losses in the current economic downturn. They are not only the most likely to lose a job, but also the least likely to find a new one. Their poor employment prospects threaten to raise the already stubborn level of long-term unemployment among the lower-skilled, by eroding their skills still further.
Skill obsolescence is pronounced in ‘greying’ western societies. While 31% of workers aged 50 to 55 experience skill obsolescence, ranging from 23% in Finland to 32% in Hungary, this falls to 21% for individuals aged 30 to 39. Physical skill obsolescence
can be a natural outcome of getting older. However, older or ‘silver’ workers are also at risk of economic skill obsolescence. The survey found that around 19% of workers aged 50 to 55 believe that technological developments have made their skills outdated in the past two years.
In the next decade, substantial numbers will work in technologically intensive occupations. All workers will need access to continuing training to keep up with new technologies and changing organisational practices. But there is a potential problem of silver workers not having opportunities to catch up with emerging skill demands.
A greater proportion of silver workers are expected to work in medium-skilled and manufacturing jobs (Figure 3) which have a generally lower rate of continuing training than the service sector. A survey of companies in 30 European countries by Eurofound in 2009 indicates that while 57% of firms in the production sector, such as manufacturing, offer continuing training, this rises to 60% for all private sector services (71% in the finance sector) and 73% in all public services.
Older workers may also need support to adapt sometimes long-standing but outdated beliefs and attitudes and to adjust to new workplace realities. Not having the opportunity to develop continually one’s skills can be costly. Older workers, in particular, who wish to extend their working lives, will find it increasingly difficult to do so if they do not keep up with the changing demands and complexity of future work environments.
According to the survey, around 21% of workers whose careers were interrupted for less than a year, for example because of unemployment, child rearing or other family responsibilities, experienced skill obsolescence. This rises to 25% for those away from work for up to four years and climbs to over 30% for those taking career breaks of more than five years.
It is likely that people who are overskilled experience a greater degree of skill obsolescence, since they do not use all of their skills and have little opportunity to refresh the ones they had or learn new ones. This is made worse by the current economic situation. Weak employment demand is increasing competition for jobs. Under these conditions, people with better qualifications are more likely to take jobs at lower levels, with the result that their knowledge, skills and competences are underused and so in danger of becoming obsolete over time.
It is also possible that as people experience skill obsolescence, their skill level eventually falls below that needed to perform their job optimally. Survey findings confirm that individuals experiencing skill obsolescence are also more likely to be underskilled. Skill obsolescence may also restrict the chances of people being able to move to more suitable (or better matched) jobs either with their current or a new employer.
Coping with the pace of change
Employees were asked about changes in their organisations in the past two years. Types of changes examined were implementation of new or significantly different machinery, techniques or IT systems, as well as changes to products, services and working methods. Ironically, Finland, the country with the lowest level of skill obsolescence was also the country where workers had experienced most changes. In Finland, 47% of the workers surveyed had experienced these sorts of organisational changes, compared to 45% in the Netherlands, 42% in Germany and 39% in Hungary.
However, Finland also had the highest incidence of work-related on-the-job training (63%), compared to 56% in the Netherlands, 46% in Hungary and 40% in Germany. Finnish workers also express the most positive attitudes to learning (German and Dutch workers are also very positive). Finland (with 67%) and the Netherlands (69%) also ranked highly in terms of organisations that encourage workers to broaden their skills. Even though changes may be varied, rapid and far-reaching, it seems that skill obsolescence can be countered by training and learning at work.
Mitigating skill obsolescence
Action to mitigate skill obsolescence can be taken at enterprise level. The likelihood of skill obsolescence is significantly higher when:
- individuals work in organisations that do not encourage them to broaden their skills. In the survey, 31% of workers in non-supportive organisations are affected by skills obsolescence, compared to 20% in enterprises that encourage learning;
- worker’s jobs do not allow them to use a variety of their skills and exercise discretion. While 23% of workers in skill-intensive jobs experience skills obsolescence, this rises to 31% for those who are not.
The lesson seems to be to design jobs to make them as interesting as possible. Job design covers many aspects, but a particularly important one may be autonomy. The survey asked employees whether ‘the many rules and regulations’ prevented them from trying out new things. On average, 41% of workers across the four countries said yes. The figure ranged from 49% in Hungary to 37% in Germany. The figures for the Netherlands and Finland were 39% and 38% respectively. Workers who felt that such rules and regulations constrain their autonomy were significantly more likely to experience skill obsolescence.
Consequently, a supportive learning culture in the enterprise and jobs that provide autonomy and opportunities for employees to develop and broaden their skills can prevent or moderate loss of skills.
Attitude is also important. While attitudes of highly-qualified people in interesting jobs will be more positive, support for self-management for learning at all levels can arrest the decline in skills. Flexible, age-friendly human resource policies that take into account learning needs of older workers can slow down erosion of their skills.
Formal instruction or training during working hours is the most effective way to counter skill obsolescence. However, willingness of employees to train outside working hours is significantly higher for those in organisations that encourage their workers to broaden their skills.
Skill obsolescence and skill mismatch
Skill obsolescence is frequently an aspect of skill mismatch. The pilot survey, although covering just four countries, indicates strongly that skill obsolescence concerns not only unemployed people, but also those in work.
From the survey’s findings, it also appears that skill obsolescence is a sizeable problem. Importantly, it is
a problem that affects both older workers and ‘prime-age’ workers with 20 to 30 years of working life ahead of them. Skill obsolescence has direct
implications for productivity in enterprises, as well as employee job satisfaction and career prospects.
The survey results also point to ways to reduce skill obsolescence and manage effectively the skills that people have, indicating that job design and learning attitudes are important factors.
As qualification levels of Europe’s workforce are increasing – by 2020 more than a third of the workforce will have high-level university or equivalent qualifications – one challenge is to prevent high-level skills from going to waste. Maintaining and developing them is important for Europe’s competitiveness.
While many questions remain open on how skill obsolescence develops and how to combat it, it is clear that the factors that prevent people from participating in adult training and which appear to contribute to skill obsolescence are two sides of the same coin. The characteristics that put workers at risk of skill obsolescence – old age, low skills, lack of organisational support for learning, job design that fails to get the best out of people – correlate with low participation in continuing training.
Lack of opportunity for workers to upgrade their skills and keep up with changing demand and for skills such as problem-solving, information and communication skills, or green skills, raises likelihood of unemployment and increases job insecurity. Skill obsolescence is closely related to a lack of career development and low job mobility, even for those who know how to operate their smartphones.
Download Prévenir l’obsolescence des compétences. Veraltende Qualifikationen – was tun? Πώς αποφεύγεται η απαξίωση των δεξιοτήτων; Preventing skill obsolescence. Prevenir la obsolescencia de competencias. Prevenire l’obsolescenza delle competenze. Prevenir a obsolescência de competências.
Making the case for mobility
As Europe struggles to emerge from the economic crisis, it seems inevitable that mobility will become increasingly essential to the learning process, particularly as young graduates are faced with a new economic landscape and evolving labour force requirements. Mobility might also increasingly be under threat, as national governments are crippled by austerity measures. Societal stakeholders, such as taxpayers, employers and parents will rightly demand to know the intended output of investing in mobility and internationalisation and its return. A natural defence is to link mobility directly to the employability of young graduates, an argumentation that the European Commission is currently using. However, one must not lose sight of the multiple social and economic benefits that mobility can yield. The discourse on mobility, while favouring notions such as employability, must not be subsumed under the perceived labour force demands. The values, skills and international perspectives that mobility generates for institutions, individuals, societies and business must be well evidenced, and underpin the reasons for investment in mobility.
4.2 Unanswered questions
Underlying all these concerns is a mixture of unanswered questions: how much mobility do we actually ‘need’ and should mobility be voluntary or a compulsory element of academic studies, regulated by institutions and/or national authorities? There are many different opinions on this topic and thus also different policy responses across the continent. Discussion on these issues relates closely to the question of whether it is possible to define the benefits and drawbacks of mobility unambiguously. Similarly, there is also an ongoing debate on whether ‘balanced’ mobility (into and out of countries) is desirable, achievable or a forlorn hope given the different traditions, contexts and situations of countries. In an environment where the separate logics of the labour market and of academic concentration seem increasingly to prevail, can one realistically hope for equitable academic exchange in Europe and globally? And in this sense, can the concept of brain circulation have a real application in relation to mobility strategies? Last but not least, there are practical questions to be answered in particular those related directly to the financing of mobility, the changing application of tuition fees and also the portability of student finance. Responses to these broader issues will to a large extent be conditioned by the funding policies and incentives put in place to support mobility at national and European level.
These questions seem of a different order to those addressed in this report, but institutions will soon have to consider them and others that are equally challenging. Many national higher education systems are in flux as they endeavour to resolve, simultaneously, the problems of demography, employability, value creation, funding and widening participation. The socioeconomic fabric of Europe is changing far more rapidly than was anticipated when the Bologna Process began. All the more reason, therefore, for higher education institutions to have the autonomy and resources to address its needs. Their ability to think strategically is essential: it can create a sense of corporate identity and foster full multi-stakeholder participation; it can ensure that rich contact is maintained with the constituencies that institutions serve; it can help institutions project towards potential partners locally and internationally. In this context, to ignore mobility is to ignore both the wider policy frame and many of the open scientific, social and ethical questions that universities aspire to answer.
The MAUNIMO Mobility Mapping Tool is an aid to strategic planning. It cannot resolve every problem, but it can help institutions formulate reasoned responses to volatile circumstances and define mobility in terms of what benefits the individual, the institution and society.
Download Mobility: Closing the gap between policy and practice.
See also: MAUNIMO project report and final conference, EUA reviews strategies for higher education mobility, Evaluating the ‘Mobility Mapping Tool’, Mobility Mapping Tool.
Apparemment, la crise a convaincu les jeunes diplômés que les entreprises dont le modèle a été le plus mis à mal sont aussi celles qui ont le plus de moyens de s'en sortir, soit en changeant de modèle, soit (et peut-être surtout) en triomphant de ceux qui auraient pu naïvement penser que la crise a démontré la nécessité de changer de modèle...
Les résultats complets (sur les cinquante premières entreprises de chaque tableau) peuvent être consultés en suivant ce lien.
Contribution de la CPU dans le cadre de la concertation nationale "Refondons l'école de la république"
Groupe 4: Des personnels formés, reconnus et valorisés - Contribution de la Conférence des Présidents d’Université
La Formation des Enseignants: pour une réforme de la réforme
Si cette contribution s’appuie, pour une large part, sur les réflexions et les propositions toujours d’actualité du groupe « Interconférences » (CPU, CDIUFM, CDUL, CDUS), auteur du rapport sur la Formation des enseignants remis au MEN et au MESR à l’été 2009, elle a aussi fait l’objet d’une réactualisation dans les derniers mois, voire les dernières semaines.
→Tout mettre en oeuvre pour parvenir à une élévation significative du niveau de formation des futurs enseignants et défendre, en l’illustrant, l’idée toute simple qu’enseigner est un métier qu’il convient de reconnaître et de revaloriser. Cette réforme en profondeur de la formation des enseignants doit bénéficier d’un effort sans précédent de co-construction entre, d’un côté, le prescripteur-recruteur et, d’un autre côté, le formateur, autrement dit entre le MEN et les Universités avec l'appui du MESR.
Professionnalisation, formation continuée et formation tout au long de la vie. En savoir +.
Group 4: trained staff, recognized and valued - Contribution of the Conference of University Presidents
Teacher Training: for a reform of the reform
If this contribution is based, in large part, on the reflections and proposals still topical group "Interconférences" (CPU, CDIUFM, CDUL, CDUS), author of the report on the training of teachers and given to MEN MESR the summer of 2009, she has also been an update in the last months, or even weeks. More...
La CPU, la CDEFI et la CGE organisent, avec le soutien de la Commission européenne, un colloque sur le thème "Les universités européennes à l’horizon 2020: la diversité des excellences", qui placera les enjeux français de l'enseignement supérieur et de la recherche dans une perspective européenne et internationale.
Il se déroulera le vendredi 16 novembre 2012 au Conseil économique, social et environnemental. Les acteurs et partenaires des universités, les responsables politiques et ministères en charge de formations supérieures et de recherche seront conviés à cette journée.
CPU, CGE CDEFI και να οργανώσει, με την υποστήριξη της Ευρωπαϊκής Επιτροπής, ένα συνέδριο με θέμα "ευρωπαϊκά πανεπιστήμια το 2020: η ποικιλομορφία της αριστείας" που θα τοποθετήσει τα ζητήματα της γαλλικής ανώτατης εκπαίδευσης έρευνα σε μια ευρωπαϊκή και διεθνή προοπτική. Θα πραγματοποιηθεί την Παρασκευή 16 Νοεμβρίου του 2012 στην οικονομική, κοινωνική και περιβαλλοντική. Περισσότερα...
Le CESE examine son projet d’avis "Réussir la démocratisation de l’enseignement supérieur"
Alors que le paysage universitaire français est bouleversé depuis une dizaine d’années par une succession de mesures, l’université ne rassemble plus en 2010 que 56% des étudiants (hors IUT) – contre près de 75% en 1970. Si les gouvernements successifs ont régulièrement affirmé l'objectif de 50% de titulaires d'un diplôme de l'enseignement supérieur, le compteur reste bloqué autour de 42%.
Les inégalités de parcours et de réussite persistent et sont très marquées selon le cursus antérieur: seuls 47% des bacheliers professionnels s’inscrivent dans une formation supérieure et leurs chances de succès varient selon les voies de formation - elles sont quasi nulles à l'Université. La France est ainsi un des pays européens où les inégalités sociales sont les plus marquées en matière d'accès aux formations supérieures. De plus en plus d’étudiants travaillent pour financer leurs études, et beaucoup ne vont pas au bout de leurs cursus.
Face à ces constats, le Bureau du Conseil économique, social et environnemental (CESE) a confié à la section de l’éducation, de la culture et de la communication le soin de proposer un avis sur ce sujet. En ce sens, elle a désigné Gérard Aschieri, du groupe des personnalités qualifiées, rapporteur de ce projet d'avis.
Un point presse de présentation du projet d’avis aura lieu le le mardi 25 septembre à 12h au CESE, en présence de Gérard Aschieri, rapporteur du projet d'avis, et de Philippe da Costa, Président de la section.
Vous êtes cordialement invité(e) à cette conférence de presse et vous pouvez vous inscrire dès à présent à l’adresse firstname.lastname@example.org.
Voir aussi Réussir la démocratisation de l’enseignement supérieur - l’enjeu du premier cycle, Les formations par apprentissage: un outil au service d’une démocratisation de l’enseignement supérieur, Accès à l'enseignement supérieur en France: une démocratisation réelle mais de faible ampleur.
The Committee considered its draft review "Successful democratization of higher education"
While the French universities is upset for ten years by a succession of steps, the university no longer collects in 2010 that 56% of students (excluding IUT) - against nearly 75% in 1970. If successive governments have consistently affirmed the target of 50% of graduates of higher education, the counter is stuck at around 42%. More...