The report says that if current trends continue, the number of 25- to 34-year-olds from Argentina, Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, the Russian Federation, Saudi Arabia and South Africa with a higher education degree will be almost 40% higher than the number from all OECD countries in 2020. The latest in the series of Education in Focus reports records that, in 2000, there were 51 million 25- to 34-year-olds with higher education degrees in OECD countries, and 39 million in non-OECD G20 countries.
One in every six 25- to 34-year-old with a higher education degree was from the United States, and a similar proportion was from China; 12% came from the Russian Federation and about 10% each were from Japan and India. By 2010, the same countries still possessed the largest shares of young people with a degree – but in a different order. According to OECD estimates, China accounted for 18%, followed by the US with 14%, the Russian Federation and India (each with 11%) and Japan with 7%. The OECD concedes that its projections may actually underestimate the future growth of the global talent pool, partly because a number of countries are pursuing initiatives to further drive up qualifications among their young people.
It cites the goal set in 2009 by the US to become the nation with the highest proportion of 25- to 34-year-old tertiary graduates – requiring the proportion of younger adults in the US with a degree to reach 60% by the end of the decade. It also acknowledges the progress made by European Union member states to increase the percentage of 30- to 34-year-olds completing higher education by at least 40% – Belgium, France, Ireland, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland and the UK have already reached this goal for the 25- to 34-year-old population.
These ambitions are dwarfed by China, which aims for 20% of its citizens – or 195 million people – to have higher education degrees by 2020. If this goal is realised, the OECD says that China will have a population of tertiary graduates roughly equal in size to the entire projected population of 25- to 64-year-olds in the US in 2020.
And it predicts that the ceiling for jobs in science and technology has not been reached and that individuals from increasingly better-educated populations will continue to have good employment outcomes, as long as economies continue to become more knowledge based.
Voir aussi End of empire for Western universities, One third of young people with a tertiary degree from China by 2020.
But these last few days in Denver, I’ve noticed an undercurrent of admissions officers concerned that all the talk of unethical application practices in China has unfairly tarred the reputations of some very good students from that country who want to study in the United States.
“Can’t you write some positive stories?,” one admissions director at a prominent American university asked me. Another conference-goer, a college counselor in China, talked about the “stereotypes, some accurate, many not,” that exist about Chinese students seeking to study abroad.
Megan Wang, an associate director of admission at the University of Southern California, recruits heavily in China. “We have a load of applicants,” she says, “and, yes, there are bad apples. But we need to have a little more faith in these students.”
Ms. Wang says she is seeing a marked improvement in the quality of Chinese applications. Prospective students there know that some of their predecessors “did not represent them well,” she says, and a number of them are eager to change that perception. This year she received some applications from China with homemade pledges attached, attesting that the students had completed the paperwork themselves without the help of one of the many paid recruitment agents in that country.
Despite Ms. Wang’s optimism, one of the most heavily attended sessions during the conference, with participants sitting in the aisles of a small auditorium, was one entitled, “How to Make Confident Decisions About Chinese Applicants.” The conclusion seemed to be: Often, you can’t.
A speaker at that session, F. David McCauley, deputy director of college counseling at Beijing National Day School, told the group that many of American admissions officers’ fears about Chinese applicants are founded. Students sometimes skip classes for months at a time during their senior year to cram for exams, he says, even boarding at test-prep centers. Recently, he got a call from a top American university about a supposed student of his who had applied there. The student had never attended Beijing National Day School.
One of the newest strategies, Mr. McCauley says, is for students in Japan who have taken English-proficiency exams to call counterparts in China to fill them in on the test questions.
Of fraudulent practices, “what you hear about, you can believe,” Mr. McCauley says.
Marianne Brandt, Mr. McCauley’s counterpart at Shenzhen Middle School, a high school in southern China, said an American college had sent her a transcript from one of her students after it raised red flags. Fifty of 80 grades on the document had been faked by a recruitment agent hired by the student’s family. So, too, were the recommendation letters.
Another Chinese-based counselor told me that although one might think that mounting concern among American colleges would harm the reputation of agents, some agents were using it to their advantage. For example, one agent told parents that the suspicions of American colleges were precisely why they needed to hire him—he could guarantee that he could get students’ applications through admissions scrutiny.
Mr. McCauley has persuaded about a dozen high schools, mainly in Beijing, to agree to abide by certain practices in college counseling to try to undercut the problematic activity, such as providing unaltered transcripts directly to overseas universities. But, he notes, few high schools have in-house guidance counselors, leaving many students to turn to outside agents. “We’ve got a broomstick,” he says, “to fight off an army of samurai.”
Ein Bildschirm, eine Tastatur und eine Flasche Wasser: die Arbeitsplätze in der Hamburger Dekra Akademie sind aufgeräumt und funktional. Sichtschutzblenden verhindern den Blick zu den Nachbartischen. Nichts lenkt ab von den Aufgaben auf dem Monitor: Texte lesen, Aussagen ableiten, wirtschaftliche Zusammenhänge formalisieren, Grafiken interpretieren.
Durchaus machbar für die 60 Teilnehmer im Raum, die alle schon einen Bachelor-Abschluss in Wirtschaftswissenschaften in der Tasche haben. Wäre da nicht der Zeitdruck. Knapp vier Stunden für 90 Ankreuzaufgaben. Und wäre nicht die Nervosität: "Die Prüflinge sind aufgeregt - und wie!", sagt Betreuer Lothar Koblica an der Dekra Akademie. "Es hängt ja auch ein Stück Zukunft daran."
Über die Zukunft und in diesem Fall einen Masterstudienplatz entscheidet allerdings nicht das Team der Dekra Akademie. Es ist zuständig für die Räumlichkeiten, die Technik und die Umsetzung des Reglements, das von der ITB Consulting vorgegeben wurde. Das Bonner Beratungsunternehmen hat den Eignungstest für Masterstudiengänge in den Wirtschafts- und Sozialwissenschaften, kurz TM-WISO entwickelt und bringt ihn jährlich in immer neuen Versionen in die jeweiligen Testorte. 97 Euro kostet die Prüfung die Studenten.
Bewerber der Universitäten Hamburg und Köln können mit der erfolgreichen Teilnahme ihre Chancen auf einen Masterstudienplatz erheblich verbessern. Nach der Bachelor-Note ist das Testergebnis ein weiteres wichtiges Kriterium bei der Studienplatzvergabe, erklärt Stefanie Weide, Programm-Managerin an der Universität zu Köln, zu deren Aufgabenbereich die Masterzulassung gehört.
Allgemeine Studierfähigkeitstests sind in Deutschland nicht erlaubt, weil das Abitur die Zulassung zu jedem Studium ermöglichen soll. Fachbezogene Tests dagegen sind zulässig. Sie kommen vor allem in Masterstudiengängen der Wirtschaftswissenschaften zum Einsatz, wie an der Leuphana Universität Lüneburg, der Bucerius Law School oder der Fresenius Fachhochschule.
Grand Poitiers et son université s’étaient déjà engagés au sein d’un syndicat mixte pour la restructuration du quartier universitaire. Engagement qui s’était traduit, essentiellement, par l’aménagement du campus et l’ouverture de débats concernant la place de la ville de Poitiers dans le financement des bâtiments universitaires.
Le 6 juillet dernier, Alain Claeys, président de l’agglomération, et Yves Jean, président de l’université, ont déclaré qu’ils avaient la ferme intention d’engager de nouveaux chantiers au-delà du campus, et notamment au centre-ville de Poitiers et aux équipements universitaires du Futuroscope.
Plus de collaboration inter-universitaire
Yves Jean souhaite ainsi faire entrer son université dans le club des facultés pluridisciplinaires, "à l’instar de Nantes, Rennes ou Tours". Le président de l’université et son équipe ont d’ailleurs lancé une collaboration avec l’université de Tours, qui vient s’ajouter à celles mises en place avec La Rochelle et Limoges.
D’après le président, l’université de Poitiers bénéficie d’une reconnaissance internationale peu connue localement: il veut donc travailler sur l'environnement, mais aussi la biologie, la santé, le développement durable et les civilisations médiévales. Dans une autre optique, Yves jean souhaite aussi "ouvrir des cours importants" aux Poitevins, poursuivant ainsi la politique visant à faire découvrir l’université de Poitiers aux habitants de la ville.
Création de nouvelles instances de discussion
Pour favoriser encore plus la collaboration au niveau local, Grand Poitiers et l’université vont suivre les recommandations dégagées lors de la conférence des présidents d’université et l’association des grandes villes. Agglomération et université vont donc créer de nouvelles instances de discussion en ratissant large: Conseil général, Conseil régional, ville de Châtelllerault, Ensma (école d’ingénieur) et Escem (école de commerce) y seraient tous invités.
Par Olivier Rollot. En ces temps financiers troublés pour beaucoup d’écoles de commerce et de management, leur proposer un nouvel indicateur leur permettant de mesurer leur impact sur leur région ou leur ville leur serait bien utile. C’est sans doute ce que s’est dit la Fnege (Fondation nationale pour l’enseignement de la gestion des entreprises) en créant le « Business School Impact Score » (BSIS).
Un indicateur original
Présenté le 4 juillet à 60 des 80 institutions (écoles, IAE, UFR de gestion) membres de la Fnege, l’Isis permettra à celles qui le décident d’être auditées « Cela permettra d’estimer ce qu’elles apportent à ville ou à leur région, que ce soit en termes d’innovation, de rentrées financières directes ou d’image », explique Michel Kalika, ancien directeur de l’EM Strasbourg et responsable d’un projet déjà testé auprès de deux institutions publique et privée.
Le BSIS se présente sous la forme d'indicateurs avec, pour chacun d'eux, un nombre d'étoiles variant de une à cinq. L'impact financier regroupe ainsi les flux liés aux étudiants (frais de scolarité, logement, restauration, transports...), l’impact économique les stages, les thèses, l’innovation apportée, etc. Autant d’indicateurs qui seront testés auprès des écoles volontaires pour un coût estimé entre 25000 et 30000 euros. « Ce sont ensuite aux écoles de décider ou non si elles veulent publier ces indicateurs, explique Pierre-Louis Dubois, le directeur général de la Fnege.
Un indicateur de plus ?
Après l’EFMD (Equis et Epas), l’AACSB et l’AMBA, la Cefdg et j’en passe surement voici donc les écoles de management (et les IAE pour certains) face à un nouvel évaluateur. Avec de nombreux critères et un nouvel intérêt mais aussi de nouveaux coûts, un nouveau travail interne. Si certaines étaient demandeuses, il est bien sûr encore trop tôt pour savoir quel accueil elles lui réserveront à ce nouvel indicateur. D’autant que l’EM Strasbourg travaille sur un projet similaire…
By Olivier Rollot. In these troubled financial times for many business schools and management, to propose a new indicator to measure their impact on their region or city they would be helpful. This is probably what was said FNEGE (National Endowment for the teaching of business management) by creating the "Business School Impact Score" (BSIS).
An original indicator
Presented on July 4 to 60 of 80 institutions (schools, IAE, Faculty of Management) members FNEGE, Isis will allow those who choose to be audited "It will estimate what they bring to town or their region, whether in terms of innovation, financial income or direct image, "explains Michel Kalika, former director of the EM Strasbourg and responsible for a project already tested with two public and private institutions. More...
The proceedings of the seminar are now available for download. They provide an introduction to the topic, key discussion points and a set of conclusions.
Drawing inspiration from this public event, UIL intends to organise a second seminar in late 2012 to deepen discussions on the role of higher education in lifelong learning in close cooperation with the University of Hamburg and the Ministry of Education of China. Download summary.
II seminario RUEPEP sobre e-learning, Reus, 11 de Julio 2012. Apreciad@s amig@s:
El 11 de Julio, organizado por la Universidad Rovira i Virgili en Reus (Tarragona) se celebrará el II seminario RUEPEP, en el que desarrollaremos el tema del e-learning y sus últimas tendencias y buenas prácticas.
Con estos seminarios que desarrollan un problema concreto desde un punto de vista más técnico esperamos poder dar respuesta también a las inquietudes de nuevas personas que trabajan en las unidades de formación postgrado y educación continua junto con los gestores principales.
Podéis obtener más información sobre la agenda de la jornada al pinchar en el banner de abajo. Ya está abierta la inscripción!
IMHE Info (Programme Institutional Management in Higher Education) May 2012.
The Cinderella of Tertiary Education: Postsecondary Vocational Education and Training
While tertiary education is expanding rapidly, how post-secondary vocational education and training (PSV) contributes to this expansion is rarely taken into account. PSV is often seen as a second choice, less glamorous than privileged universities associated with centuries of elite academic tradition and excellence. Post-secondary vocational education and training institutions are not included in the global rankings of world-renowned universities which attract the best students and provide access to the most prestigious jobs. However, this type of education is here to stay. In many countries post-secondary vocational education and training is booming as demonstrated by the number of enrolled students and PSV graduates in high skill jobs.
It is difficult to have a globally-acceptable definition of PSV because the range of institutions varies widely as do programme features. A current OECD study has therefore adopted a pragmatic definition of these programmes: one to four year programmes (full-time equivalent), depending on the country, that prepare students for direct entry into the labour market in a specific profession. These programmes are provided beyond upper secondary level (International Standard Classification of Education - ISCED 4, 5), through which students may obtain recognised qualifications. This does not include programmes beyond bachelor degree or the equivalent.
Post-secondary vocational education and training institutions offer PSV programmes regardless of their governance and funding structure. They may also provide other education and training programmes. For example, community colleges in the United States offer a wide range of vocational as well as academic programmes, while Swiss professional education and training colleges provide specific PSV programmes.
For employers education is important as it has a direct bearing on worker productivity. Two identical workers with different educational backgrounds performing identical tasks will produce different outputs. Some jobs require high level education and training (doctors, lawyers) while there is not much comparative advantage of a well educated workforce in other types of jobs (cleaners). As a result, the need for more education-intensive jobs in response to changes in the economy and labour market will increase the demand for high level education. In recent decades, employment has risen in high skill occupational groups in most OECD countries while at the same time the middle skill job sector has contracted. There has also been an increase in low-skill occupations such as elementary jobs, as well as sales and services while the number of workers in clerk positions has been steadily falling. Employment in fields such as crafts and plant operators has also dropped off. This phenomenon has sometimes been described as a ‘hollowing out’ of the labour market.
Stronger links and inter-reliance between countries affects PSV systems. The impact of globalisation is evident not only through cross-border movements of students and graduates but also through more indirect routes such as foreign direct investment and international trade. This is not only about the movement of people across borders but also increasing cross-border movement of goods, services, technology and capital resulting in greater international competition. Yet at the same time, for companies in national markets, globalisation provides new market opportunities in other countries. Companies operating in diverse markets therefore require more “globalised” skills and competencies. For example, a tax specialist working for clients in various countries might be required to understand the relevant rules and tax laws of several countries. To ensure that graduates completing post-secondary programmes are well prepared for increasingly globalised jobs, both local and international aspects relevant to the field of study need to be well integrated into study programmes. In practical terms, this might require teaching staff to keep abreast of recent changes in policy, research findings and technological innovations and to update study content to reflect recent developments.
Prior to setting up in another economic market, companies take into account available human capital, as well as other factors such as transport costs, plant economies of scale and other local market characteristics. Countries with a highly skilled workforce are less competitive in low skill sectors. PSV can play an important role in helping companies promote job creation in high skill sectors to prevent the outflow of capital and investment.
The response of PSV institutions to labour market needs depends on the mix of programmes and the skills obtained within each programme. PSV should provide the skills and knowledge necessary for students to be able to accomplish successfully the tasks that the job entails. Students who are trained using outdated equipment or who are not up to par on important aspects of their specialised field are at a significant disadvantage as they finish their studies poorly prepared for the job for which they have been supposedly trained. As a result, they have little comparative advantage in specific occupations and employers are more likely
to hire people with better credentials. For institutions, this might lead to fewer enrolments, less public funding and diminished confidence in the credentials they provide on the labour market. Institutions therefore need to consider both employer needs and students’ interest in the set of skills that students develop through the programme.
Employers should indicate the skills they require so that PSV can adjust their programmes accordingly. To ensure employer participation in PSV, many countries have introduced a legal obligation for stakeholders and institutions to consult employers on various matters including the mix of the education provided. To this end, labour market representatives are often included on the governing boards of institutions. The willingness of employers to provide on-the-job training is a good indicator of employer needs.
New OE CD work to boost entrepreneurship: Review of Skills for Entrepreneurship
Universities can provide a unique environment for nurturing high growth enterprises, spin-offs and graduate start-ups. A new OECD activity has been launched to assist universities, governments at different levels and development agencies to evaluate and improve the effectiveness of policies, strategies, structures and practices in university support of entrepreneurship. This would increase start-up, survival and growth rates of graduate enterprises and showcase best practices throughout the world.
This review evaluates university entrepreneurship against OECD criteria, together with a policy development workshop to create and agree on a local action plan to implement recommendations. It includes: a) a comparative survey of university entrepreneurship strategy and practices, b) a detailed assessment of challenges and opportunities, c) tailored recommendations for policy improvements and a Policy Action Plan, d) comparison of the quality of local entrepreneurship support with institutions and regions in other countries, and e) a set of international learning model programmes.
Individual universities, groupings of universities and other higher education institutions, national and sub-national government authorities and economic development agencies are invited to apply to join a new review round that starts in early 2013. Studies take 9-12 months to complete. To know more about the benefits, contents, costs and scope of the review, please contact firstname.lastname@example.org or email@example.com.
The Managing Internationalisation initiative
The OECD Programme on Institutional Management in Higher Education (IMHE) studies how the increasingly global nature of higher education is changing the ways in which higher education institutions view their role, mission and the way in which they work.
As part of this initiative, two conferences were organised. The first one focused on the Strategic Management of Internationalisation in Higher Education at Lund University in association with the Nordic University Association (NUS) and the Nordic Association of University Administrators (NUAS). The second one, co-organised with the State University of New York, examined Internationalisation for Job Creation and Economic Growth.
From the conference held in Lund, three main challenges were identified: i) cultural understanding; ii) more encompassing management strategies; and iii) the need for regulatory frameworks. Key recommendations emphasised that internationalisation should be included in the debate on improving quality assessment in institutions and include staff and students in the management groups; HEIs should seek government support in the development of international strategies; internationalisation strategies and policies should not be one-size-fits-all but rather amended to fit the size and type of the institution.
Breaking away from the rhetoric seeking to explain and rethink internationalisation, the conference held in New York underscored the concrete issues and actions to be taken by universities and governments in order to best exploit and deal with internationalisation for economic growth. The four main conclusions were:
• There is a consensus on the economic value of internationalisation but not all participants considered that internationalisation might be an economic driver. University leaders still essentially recognise the student social and civic engagement without enlarging the potential effects of international education.
• The economic impact of internationalisation draws an increasing interest from governments and higher education systems (e.g., regional consortia, multi-campus systems, home and offshore systems…). Both play a growing role in fostering or inhibiting internationalisation, either via regulations or incentives.
• Likewise governments and systems also acknowledge that the internationalisation of higher education led by universities have an impact on their policies, particularly when it comes to national security and trade. Some national authorities have subsequently fostered economic ties with foreign governments as to control and facilitate the import and export of higher education. The individual impact of internationalisation on students’ experience is not the main purpose of governmental intervention (unlike for universities) but the wider development lever that internationalisation can spur on.
• Therefore, discussions on internationalisation should include governments, systems and the institutions.
SUNY, along with its 64 campuses, is developing the concept of “systemness” as a driver to respond consistently to current challenges in the US and the results of the severe economic downturn in the industrial areas of New York State. Nancy Zimpher, Chancellor of SUNY, defined the systemness to mean “the coordination of multiple components that, when working together, create a network of activity that is more powerful than any action of individual parts on their own.”
IMHE has held online focus groups to further explore aspects of the internationalisation of higher education. The findings of these sessions will be compiled into a report which will also contain tools for strategic management and institutional practice as well as useful resources. The results of the 2 conferences and the report should be presented at a session at the IMHE 2012 General Conference on Attaining and Sustaining Mass Higher Education, Paris, France, 17-19 September 2012. www.oecd.org/edu/imhe/generalconference.
Published three times a year, each issue is devoted to a special 'In Focus' topic of interest and debate for the higher education community worldwide. Each issue also features the following sections: IAU Activities, upcoming events and specific projects the IAU has undertaken; IAU Collaboration and Networking; Membership News; New Publications; and a global Calendar of Events. IAU Horizons is available in paper format in English and French and electronically.
The Contribution of Higher Education to Sustainable Development
H. van’t Land, IAU Director Membership and Programme Development,
D. Tilbury, University of Gloucestershire, UK
University Networks & Policy Advocacy for Sustainability
- UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development – Less than Three Years to Go, by A. Leicht, UNESCO, Paris, France
- UNESCO chairs for (higher) education for sustainable development, by G. Michelsen, and M. Rieckmann, UNESCO Chair in Higher Education for Sustainable Development, Leuphana University Lüneburg, Germany
- International Association of Universities’ role in promoting SD, by H. van’t Land, IAU, France
- COPERNICUS Alliance – Promoting transformative learning and change for sustainability in higher education, by I. Mulà, C. Mader, and D. Tilbury, COPERNICUS Alliance
- Advancing research on ESD - The work of the ESD Research Centre (ESDRC), Rikkyo University, by O. Abe, Rikkyo University and K. Nomura, Nagoya University, Japan
- African higher education in the 21st century, by H. Lotz-Sisitka, Rhodes University, South Africa
- Engaging Higher Education Institution in Education for Sustainable Development: the Role of Regional Centres of Expertise on ESD, by Z. Fadeeva, UNU-IAS
Leadership, Management & Institutional Development
- Institutional and Leadership Development in Higher Education, by Dzulkifli A. R., IAU Vice President and Albukhary International University, Malaysia
- Spanish universities’ commitment to sustainability, by A.M. Geli Ciurana. and J. Benayas del Alamo, CADEP-CRUE, Spain
- The Sustainable Futures Leadership Academy (SFLA), by G. Scott, Australia, L.Sharp, USA, and D. Tilbury, UK
Education, Curriculum & Professional Development
- Hokkaido University’s Contributions to Create a Sustainable Society, by T. Hondoh, Hokkaido University, Japan
- Czech Multi-media Toolkit for SD Oriented University Learning in Networks, by J. Dlouhá, Charles University Environment Centre, Czech Republic
- Energy Efficiency as a key theme of Sustainable Development in Central Asia, by T. Shakirova, M. Olar, the Regional Environmental Centre for Central Asia (CAREC), Kazakhstan
- Quality and Education for Sustainability: Dialogue, Strategy and Professional Development, by A. Ryan and D. Tilbury, University of Gloucestershire, UK
- Research Capacity in the South: A Key to Sustainable Development, by T. Breu, U. Wiesmann, A. Zimmermann, and K. Herweg, Centre for Development and Environment, University of Bern, Switzerland
- A Taste of Spice: The Role of Research Higher Degree Students in Contributing to ESD Policy and Practice, by L. Ryan, Griffith University, Australia
Business and Community Outreach
- The Universidad Veracruzana meets the challenges of regional sustainability, by E. J. González-Gaudiano, Universidad Veracruzana, Mexico
- Engaging Universities in Education for a Sustainable China -- Experience of Shangri-la Institute for Sustainable Communities, by Y. Liu, and A. Constable, Shangri-la Institute for Sustainable Communities, China
- A Community-Centred Approach to Education for Sustainable Development, by L.Down, University of the West Indies, Jamaica
- Green Campus Movement in Korean Higher Education, by E.S. Shin, Korean Association for Green Campus Initiative (KAGCI), Korea
- What is the role of government agencies in changing campuses towards sustainability? A case study of the Higher Education Funding Council for England, by J. Simpson, Higher Education Funding Council for England, U.K.
- Transforming our universities into sustainable development labs opened to the world, by A. Webster, and V. Bisaillon, University of Sherbrooke, Canada
- Students’ Grassroots Sustainability Programs - the work of World Student Community for Sustainable Development (WSCSD) and Student for Global Sustainability – University of Nairobi (SfGS-UoN), by O. N. Otieno, World Student Community for Sustainable Development (WSCSD), Kenya
- Be informed, get involved, make a difference – oikos Student Entrepreneurship for Sustainability, by J. Hamschmidt, oikos foundation for economy and ecology, Switzerland
Indicators for Progressing Sustainable Development across the University Sector
- STARS – an AASHE Assessment Initiative, by P. Rowland, Association for the Advancement of Sustainability in Higher Education (AASHE), U.S.A
- A new way of LiFE for sustainability reporting, by J. Brannigan, ESD Consulting Ltd, U.K.