21 avril 2012

EESC opinion: Modernisation of higher education

http://www.socialeconomy.eu.org/IMG/png/200px-EESC_logo-svg.pngCommunication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, The European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions - Supporting growth and jobs – an agenda for the modernisation of Europe's higher education systems.
Key points
- Well-designed higher education is critical for Europe's economic and intellectual future, strengthening the basis of social and economic performances, enriching living and working conditions of the coming generation(s), and being indispensable for shaping future values in European society.
- The EESC underlines that the EU Agenda needs to be completed and expects more ambition from the Council.
- The EESC insists on effective synergies between the various types and on flexible learning pathways at all levels of education; smart specialisation and distinctive profiles are needed.
- Europe 2020 should be fully applied, in substance as well as in organisation.
- Autonomy, accountability, and transparency of the institutions are key to fulfil their mission and to generate better value for money. These are also crucial for putting higher education at the centre of job creation, employability and innovation.
- Funding is vital.
- More students, knowledge workers and researchers in the technical field are needed; technical education has to be presented more attractively.
- Universities and business, both sides keeping their independence and responsibilities, should jointly develop strategic innovation agendas.
- The EESC welcomes the launch of a carefully designed U-Multirank.
- Convergence of higher education systems positively affects conditions of cross-border mobility of students and researchers which is beneficial for individual performances as well as for the European labour market and European integration.
- The EESC endorses strongly a link between the Modernisation Agenda and Horizon 2020, Erasmus for All and the Structural Funds.
Related Links

Modernisation and employability at heart of new higher education reform strategy (European Commission); Reform programme for higher education (European Commission); Higher education in Europe (European Commission); European Parliament Legislative Observatory; PreLex.
EESC opinion: Modernisation of higher education: en, fr.

OPINION of the European Economic and Social Committee on the Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions - Supporting growth and jobs - an agenda for the modernisation of Europe's higher education systems.
Rapporteur: Joost P. van Iersel. Co-rapporteur: Juraj Stern.

1.    Conclusions

1.1    Well-designed higher education is critical for Europe's economic and intellectual future, strengthening the basis of social and economic performances, enriching living and working conditions of the coming generation(s), and being indispensable for shaping future values in European society.
1.2    The EESC shares largely the analysis by the Commission as well as the proposals and recommendations of Commission and Council  to be implemented in the forthcoming years, of which many link up with the EESC Opinion "Universities for Europe" of 2009 . The EESC underlines that the EU Agenda needs to be completed and expects more ambition from the Council.
1.3    Despite a growing awareness and convergence of views there is still a long way to go. Improvements on paper are often reluctantly implemented. Vested interests, (soft) protectionism, and the still wide diversity and fragmentation of the higher education landscape – in spite of the Bologna process – block rapid adjustments. This is far from a technical affair as adjustments often imply an overhaul of existing structures as well as new definitions of responsibilities, methods, programmes, and focus. These elements require continuous attention in the modernisation process in a more precise and detailed way.
1.4    Effective diversity in higher education is, of course, desirable with classic universities bringing together teaching and research, and other types of higher education like higher vocational institutions, education with a primarily regional focus – also cross-border – and institutions with a limited number of courses. More generally, smart specialisation and distinctive profiles are needed. The EESC insists on effective synergies between the various types and on flexible learning pathways at all levels of education.
1.5    Europe 2020 should be fully applied, in substance as well as in organisation. The Commission, the Council, the MS and higher education should share responsibilities and coordinate effectively. Europe 2020 implies interconnections between higher education and the flagships, such as the Innovation Union, Industrial policy, Agenda for new skills and jobs, and Youth on the Move. Higher education systems and policies should be part of the country-specific recommendations in the Semester.
1.6    Autonomy , accountability, and transparency of the institutions are key to fulfil their mission and to generate better value for money. These are also crucial for putting higher education at the centre of job creation, employability and innovation. (National) agendas should ensure professionalisation of management, up-to-date curricula, training, quality assurance of teaching and research, specialisation, as well as international attractiveness. Special attention is required for the entrepreneurial university.
1.7    Funding is vital. It is worrying and counterproductive for Europe 2020 and Europe's position in the world that higher education is underfinanced and that budgetary constraints put public finance further under pressure. Satisfactory funding for higher education should be ensured, irrespective the sources of funding. Practices should be disseminated.
1.8    The number of students still increases rapidly. Gender equality opportunities in all areas and on all levels must be guaranteed. The dynamics of the economy and of society at large require both unhindered access and satisfactory quality. In case of an introduction (or increase) of national tuition fees, these should be accompanied by flanking policies for scholarships and loans, and guarantees of access.
1.9    More students, knowledge workers and researchers in the technical field are needed; technical education has to be presented more attractively. The contribution of social partners and labour market expertise must be well structured. Businesses – whatever their size – should be enabled to make significant contributions to curricula, training, and to an entrepreneurial spirit.
1.10    Universities and business, both sides keeping their independence and responsibilities, should jointly develop strategic innovation agendas. An interaction between higher education and companies usually add a lot to research, transfer of knowledge, development of transferable skills as well as the development of ideas. Good practices should be disseminated.
1.11    The need for a ranking and quality assessment system can hardly be overestimated to create value for money and for successful international mobility. The EESC welcomes the launch of a carefully designed U-Multirank. In addition to this "mapping" other conditions for mobility of students and researchers, and internationalisation have to be improved.
1.12    Convergence of higher education systems positively affect conditions of cross-border mobility of students and researchers which is beneficial for individual performances as well as for the European labour market and European integration. The Erasmus programme should include a pilot for a "mobility semester".
1.13    The EESC endorses strongly a link between the Modernisation Agenda and Horizon 2020, Erasmus for All and the Structural Funds

2.    Introduction

2.1    Education at all levels is of highest interest. Due to "subsidiarity" higher education in Europe has developed nationally. The Lisbon Treaty speaks only of vocational training and retraining as areas for EU measures .
2.2    The 1999 Bologna Conference initiated a decisive breakthrough, leading to a Europe-wide Bachelor, Master and Doctoral degree system. The Bologna Agreement has contributed to a convergence of higher education systems in Europe.
2.3    Meanwhile the EU launched successful international programmes for students and researchers such as Erasmus, Erasmus Mundus, Marie Curie Actions, and others. It encouraged cross-border research projects systematically through successive FPs.
2.4    There is an ongoing process of reforms and bottom-up initiatives in and between universities. Such initiatives include the establishment of groups of similarly oriented universities such as the League of European Research Universities, the Coimbra Group and others, favouring specialisation in various directions, for instance in research or in social sciences.
2.5    The EESC concluded in 2009 that "in the current sub-optimal university system the great potential of universities is insufficiently developed" . This view is shared by the Commission, in its Modernisation Agenda . The Council concludes that "quality of education and research is a key driver" for modernisation and "strengthening the knowledge triangle between education, research and innovation is a key condition to jobs and growth".
2.6    Bringing higher education up-to-date must be realised in a very diverse landscape within diverging national and regional socio-economic contexts. Classic universities and other types of institutions have specific missions. The concept of the classic university implies both education and teaching, and research.
2.7    In view of a sustainable social and economic recovery decisive steps to enhance quality in higher education are essential.
2.8    In addition to many analyses on desirable reforms the Working Document accompanying the Communication  summarises developments in MS fostering modernisation. However, considerable disparities in vital areas remain to be tackled:
-    economic productivity per country – level of higher education attainment and economic output per capita,
-    qualifications in view of employability,
-    disparities as to the agreed EU 40% attainment level for higher education, although participation in higher education is increasing significantly across Europe,
-    differing levels of investment in higher education, differences in funding, disparities in development of publicly- and privately-financed higher education,
-    in spite of "widespread and far-reaching reform of higher education governance", continuing disparities in financial and institutional autonomy and accountability.
2.9    In its overall analysis the Commission also points to shifts, notably the development of the knowledge triangle across the continent, closer relationships between universities and business circles, a focus on "high-end" knowledge-intensive activities, such as R&D, marketing and sales, value chain management and financial services, services in general, ICT, underrepresented societal groups, the changing gender balance - women accounting for more than half the student cohort at pre-doctoral level across Europe, although at doctoral level a reverse trend takes place- and impressive cross-border European and worldwide learning mobility.
2.10    The EESC is in favour of deepening the existing country reports, analyses, and recommendations parallel to a systematic country-specific method as applied in the Bologna Process progress reports and to fine-tuned OECD studies on higher education and quality measurement. Country-specific approaches will provide "good practices".
2.11    The EESC notes that certain important issues are left aside in the predominantly-general analysis, such as national and regional political interference in higher education, the way in which the need to foster participation and quality is being materialised in MS, the authorities' approach to specific requirements for professors, teachers, researchers and students, the mutual relationship between various levels of higher education in Member States, the development of common ground for education and research within universities, and, last but not least, reliable statistical evidence.
2.12    Commission and Council strongly emphasise the relationship between higher education and the economy. They do not specifically address health faculties, social sciences or humanities. This is understandable given the need for focus, especially in a time of crisis. On the other hand, as the goal of any education is an optimal relationship between education and work, it would be highly desirable also to discuss how faculties or academia that are not intimately related to the economy, however important, should deal with modernisation.
2.13    Cooperation between industry and health faculties is needed, since the new cost-effective diagnostic and therapeutic technologies require an expensive, capital-intensive hands-on training, high quality education and lifelong learning. This will help to reduce mortality and disability rates.

3.    Europe 2020 and higher education

3.1    In 2009 the EESC qualified the Lisbon Strategy and European higher education as potential major catalysts for the process of modernisation. In the same vein the Commission rightly relates universities to goals and targets of Europe 2020.
3.2    A decisive innovation made by Europe 2020 concerns "governance": closer coordination within the Commission and between MS and the EU also in matters that are not or only partly covered by the Treaty.
3.3    Of great importance for higher education are the flagship initiatives, in particular Industrial policy, the Innovation Union, an Agenda for new skills and jobs and Youth on the Move.
3.4    An increased monitoring role of the Commission, including country-specific recommendations in the Semester, should support the needed university reforms.
3.5    The higher education modernisation agenda must be fully covered by Europe 2020. The EESC welcomes the pivotal role of education in the framework of and reference to Europe 2020 in the strategic agenda of the Commission.
3.6    The EESC believes that the link between Europe 2020 and higher education boils down to the following:
-    Europe 2020 links higher education with innovation, industrial policies and mobility;
-    it creates an additional basis for shared views and cooperation between the Commission and MS, between individual MS and among education institutions;
-    it generates new impulses at national level for modernisation;
-    developments in higher education must become part of the country-specific recommendations in the annual Semester;
-    Europe 2020 will create new forums for cooperation , and increase fruitful cross-border networks;
-    the link with industrial policy and innovation requires intensified consultations with the private sector. Consultations with SMEs and micro-enterprises remain undervalued. The EESC insists on real engagement of higher education, governments and Commission to use practical experience of these enterprises in the design of programmes and curricula.
3.7    The Commission makes a distinction between key issues reserved for MS (and education institutions) to address, on the one hand, and specific EU issues, on the other. The EESC prefers to speak of MS' and the Commission's "shared responsibilities" in Europe 2020.

4.    Issues to be tackled by the MS, the Council and higher education

4.1    The identification of key issues in MS should lead to focused action. More push is needed. The Council should set priorities on proposal of the Commission which subsequently monitors national implementation.
4.2    A special focus is desirable on "more flexible governance and funding systems which balance greater autonomy for education institutions with accountability to all stakeholders", leading to specialisation, educational and research performance, and diversification .
4.3    As the EESC argued in 2009, an appropriate framework and autonomy are crucial . Despite organisation, including autonomy and funding, is a key responsibility of the MS, the EESC considers a debate on these aspects among MS and in the Council indispensable as they greatly affect the outcome for teachers and students.
4.4    The EESC agrees with the policy objectives set out in the Key policy issues box in § 2.5 of the Modernisation Agenda. These objectives entail far from technical adjustments. They are very much related to the national political environment. First and foremost, governments should be addressed rather than higher education. Political persistence, legislation and regulation, to be discussed with all stakeholders, are essential.
4.5    Governments and institutions should also be encouraged to make international comparisons concerning the benefits of greater autonomy.
4.6    Contrary to common practice, which included a successful "massification" of higher education , the focus must, in line with the current debate on higher education, shift towards smart specialisation, diversity of strategic choices and the development of centres of excellence. Successful examples in MS can lead the way.
4.7    The EESC acknowledges that such objectives may entail major shifts in education philosophies in MS. This is a matter to be discussed in the Council, including roadmaps and timetables.
4.8    In the current crisis there is an obvious link between modernisation of education and the economy. But the process should be broader. The EESC points equally to the need for up-to-date standards in terms of professionalisation, curricula, degrees and mobility in social sciences and humanities, which are important for European intellectual life, values, and identity. Moreover, well-run health faculties, social sciences and humanities also contribute to the economy.
4.9    The EESC endorses closer relationships between higher education and business. It shares the opinion that close, effective links between education, research and business, combined with the shift towards "open innovation", will be crucial for the knowledge triangle.
4.10    Accordingly, for institutions directly or indirectly related to the economy, the EESC endorses partnerships with various types of businesses as a "core activity of higher education institutions" . There should be a focus on entrepreneurial, creative and innovation skills of students as well as on interactive learning environments and knowledge-transfer infrastructures. An open mind to the "entrepreneurial university" is also needed
4.11    Conditions must be put in place for students to switch easily from one type of education institution to another, including flexible pathways from post-secondary vocational education and training to higher education, to upgrade their qualifications . Such conditions are also most helpful in life-long learning.
4.12    Regional development warrants special attention. In many regions, in particular metropolitan areas, the link between higher education, the labour market, research, innovation and business is paramount. These regions are increasingly developing transnational, and even global, specialities. A systematic involvement of higher education usually is a catalyst in local and regional development and promotes economic resilience. National authorities must be encouraged to stimulate such regional processes .
4.13    The EESC underlines cross-border regional cooperation in higher education. EGTCs can provide support for neighbourhood regions as well as for regions with comparable economic patterns .
4.14    Funding is a vital issue. The crisis is also affecting public financing of higher education Higher education risks on average to remain structurally underfinanced. Total expenditure is 1.2% GDP compared with 2.9% GDP in the US and 1.5% GDP in Japan. Moreover, private expenditure is very low compared to the US and Japan. Meanwhile the BRIC countries make also substantial progress. The EESC notes that the earlier EU-objective of 2% GPD for Higher education has not been taken on board in the Europe 2020 Strategy.
4.15    The required funding and goals like supply of high-quality graduates, professionalisation of management and value for money should support the Europe 2020 Strategy.
4.16    There is a wide variety of funding among MS. Some countries are far better off than others. The correlation between the output of higher education and employment makes maintaining adequate funding imperative by encouraging a greater variety of sources of funding, among them the use of public funds to leverage private and other public investment (match-funding).
4.17    A well-structured relationship between qualified education institutions and the business community can certainly help alleviate a downward development. Higher education should benefit from innovative processes in business. However, business or private financing should never generate unjustified influence over curricula or over fundamental research.
4.18    Universities and business, both sides keeping their independence and responsibilities, should jointly develop strategic innovation agendas. The interaction between universities and business can be strengthened by knowledge alliances. The European Innovation Platform, taking also into account the key enabling technologies, earmarked by the EU, can be very supportive.
4.19    Interaction and exchanges between higher education and companies usually add a lot to research, transfer of knowledge, development of transferable skills, and development of ideas. Good practices should be disseminated.
4.20    The Modernisation Agenda does not give a position on tuition fees, as this issue is exclusively a national responsibility. There are various systems across Europe. A gradual rise in annual fees is a general trend. Tuition fees are controversial.
4.21    The EESC points to increasing dilemmas: the number of students is rising, quality must be enhanced, and employability requires higher standards of learning, but public funding in MS is remaining equal or even tending to decrease. This is a huge challenge. In case of an introduction (or increase) of national tuition fees the EESC underlines that these should always be accompanied by flanking policies for scholarships and loans, and explicit guarantees of access.
4.22    The percentage of drop-outs in higher education is too high, while a broader cross-section of society has to be attracted into higher education. In particular the social and cultural environment in countries that are lagging behind has to be improved.
4.23     Higher numbers alone, however, is not a satisfactory criterion. Objectively-measured quality rather than the number of qualifications has to prevail.
4.24    As to qualifications some principles should prevail:
-    Consultations with social stakeholders and labour market expertise in view of employability
-    Consultations with business are vital: they should alongside consultations with big companies also include a continuous engagement to SMEs – micro and small – which is all the more important as industrial processes increasingly tend to fragment or be outsourced
-    Qualifications which are related to job creating dynamics, must be developed via learning – training schemes which ask also for commitment of and partnerships with companies
-    Interdisciplinary and transversal competences should be developed
-    Qualifications should be helpful to smart specialisation that enhances (international) attractiveness or regional specialties
-    Notwithstanding the diversity of higher education the way of defining qualifications should facilitate European (and international) exchanges and careers.
4.25    The EESC very much welcomes the proposals in the Communication concerning qualifications, quality assurance and the link between higher-quality education and researchers. It also shares the opinion that modernisation of education depends on the competence and creativity of teachers and researchers , a fact that is often overlooked. In this context, all prohibitive administrative obstacles to careers in the academic sector – such as the additional academic levels that exist in some countries (Poland among them) – should be eliminated.
4.26    Given the sharply increased number of students there is a worrying shortage of competent teachers. Quality in teaching and research means that satisfactory work conditions, attractive careers in education, and professional development as well as training facilities and rewards for excellence are necessary. This seems self-evident, but in the majority of MS the reverse is the case now. Therefore, the Council should define policy lines.
4.27    The Commission rightly stresses the need for a broad variety of study modes. Technical education must become more attractive. Social partners at national and regional level can play a very positive role in sustaining the image of technical studies. Individual companies can make a significant contribution. The EESC underlines commitment of SMEs – in particular micro and small – especially on regional level.
4.28    The European debate must focus on putting higher education at the centre of innovation, job creation and employability . This should be a central goal for all stakeholders and a shared responsibility of the Commission, the Council, the MS and, notably, higher education itself.
4.29    Given the huge challenges the higher education agenda of the Commission and the Council is still far from complete and not very strong. The EESC underlines that the current crisis requires more focused, convincing steps from the Council, the MS and higher education. Changes may be underway, but they need to be accelerated.
4.30    All actors must equally take responsibility for professionalisation, curricula, quality assurance, specialisation etc. A roadmap and time tables by the Council on the link between higher education, innovation and employability is required. Higher education institutions should support this process in sketching themselves their role in promoting quality, and social and product innovations.
4.31    The views of the ERAC concerning highly relevant objectives relating to governance and institutional reform of universities, and the link between innovation, research and education, should become an integral part of the agenda. This should pave the way for shifts in numerous European universities .

5.    Issues to be tackled by the Commission

5.1    The EESC welcomes the goals the Commission sets itself in the modernisation process of higher education, joining recent approaches as highlighted in the Council Conclusions of last November.
5.2    The EESC endorses the role the Commission can and should play in focusing on the evidence base for policy-making, among other things concerning performance and transparency. In a world of primarily – often politically inspired – national analyses and goals, a proactive role for the Commission, with objective assessments, is essential, including the terms of reference being discussed in the Council.
5.3    Such European assessments are likely to provide corresponding endeavours in MS, universities and research centres, reinforcing the common framework and hopefully leading to shared goals.
5.4    Against this backdrop, the EESC welcomes the launch of U-Multirank, a multi-dimensional performance-based ranking and information tool. It should improve transparency of the missions of the various types of institutions, and contribute to fair comparison of higher education performance in Europe. Moreover, it is useful to develop a European ranking in addition to the mono-dimensional Shanghai-ranking and other rankings anyway.
5.5    As the EESC argued in 2009, the need for a critical ranking and quality assessment system covering a broad range of issues of a wide variety of institutions can hardly be overestimated . Transparency, provided by a verifiable third independent non-partisan body, will support national authorities and higher education to put emphasis on quality, differentiation, and smart specialisation. As the Commission notes, "this independently run tool will inform choice and decision-making by all higher education stakeholders" .
5.6    In addition, "mapping" may well foster cross-border mobility among students, lecturers, researchers and professors, and, more in particular, help to upgrade research by creating new networks as well as partnerships and competition between higher education institutions across Europe.
5.7    The Council underscores mobility of students and researchers – free movement of knowledge – as a fifth freedom. The EU programmes fostering cross-border mobility for students and researchers are already successful. Nonetheless, existing systemic shortcomings have yet to be rectified. A "mobility scoreboard" is desirable to fight obstacles to learning mobility.
5.8    The Erasmus programme must demand more commitment from students. The EESC recommends a pilot for a "mobility semester" – a 5th semester in "bachelor". The programme must also be affordable for every applicant. The EESC supports the analysis of potential student mobility flows and the Commission proposals concerning the European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System as well as concerning an Erasmus Masters Degree Mobility Scheme.
5.9    Article 179(1) of the TFEU is very explicit regarding research in the EU . International mobility of researchers is key. Too often, hidden protectionism creates persistent barriers for researchers. This is damaging for European science and competitiveness. It also prevents national institutions reaping the full benefit of Europe's intellectual diversity. The EESC strongly endorses the Commission's proposal on the European Framework for Research Careers to foster researchers' mobility.
5.10    The EESC also welcomes the European framework for four career profiles for researchers, developed by the Commission and education and business experts. This must develop as an open system to create as many opportunities as possible.
5.11    The EESC stresses the need to streamline national financial and social conditions for researchers in a common European framework in order to remove remaining impediments to free movement. Europe-wide professional profiles should be developed and institutions should be encouraged to professionalise their human resource management.
5.12    An extension of the activities of the European Institute of Innovation and Technology (EIT) is desirable, not least in order to generate incentives to further knowledge alliances between business and the universities concerned. The same applies to reinforcement within Marie Curie initiatives and a quality framework for traineeships.
5.13    On a global scale the EU has to develop as a highly qualified competitor and partner. In this process higher education has an important role. Accordingly, the EESC fully supports the Council decision to invite the Commission to "design a specific strategy for the internationalisation of higher education" .
5.14    The EESC supports the envisaged framework conditions for an extension of relations with partners beyond the EU, mobility partnerships and improving facilities for students and researchers from outside Europe via EU directives and a performance scoreboard . Restrictions on non-European students and researchers need to be eased to attract talent and creativity from elsewhere.
5.15    The EESC advocates a Council discussion on the place of European higher education in a global context, which also defines the qualities required to be a successful competitor and partner. That may help education institutions to put the right conditions in place.
5.16    In a number of opinions the EESC has expressed its agreement with a focus on innovation and all aspects of smart, sustainable and inclusive growth in the drawing-up of the 2014-2020 Financial Perspectives. The EESC stresses the need for increased added value from the European funds.
5.17    Against this backdrop the EESC welcomes the Commission's specific proposal on a 73% rise of funding of the Erasmus programme in the budget 2014-2020 as well as direct references to (higher) education in the Structural Funds.
5.18    Without going into details of actual financial figures, the EESC shares the overall view that expenditure on education, research and innovation and cohesion policy all serve to create a forward-looking European environment. Whenever appropriate, funding under "restructuring of industrial sites" may also be used for this purpose.
5.19    The EESC very much welcomes the Commission's intention to establish in 2012 a high-level group (HLG) with a rolling mandate to analyse key topics for the modernisation of higher education. This HLG must be broadly made up of representatives from education institutes, academics, business and the social partners.

6.    Additional suggestions

6.1    Focused incentives to professional development in higher education like Europe-wide courses for university management and leadership are desirable.
6.2    Special links between individual universities – twinning across Europe – are recommendable so that they learn from each other's practical professional and managerial experiences. Exchanges of experiences within cross border groups of universities, and specialised conferences and seminars will be equally helpful.
6.3    At regular intervals, the scientific and educational performance of university faculties or establishments is assessed by external commissions. The EESC recommends a standing practice of a highly qualified international composition of such commissions.
6.4    In view of the cost-output ratio of higher education, the EESC recommends a European analysis of the existing systems of administrative burdens. Proposals for improvement should be drawn up on the basis of good practices.
Brussels, 28 March 2012, The President of the European Economic and Social Committee, Staffan Nilsson.

Posté par pcassuto à 23:22 - - Permalien [#]
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Rapport Davy - big-bang de la formation professionnelle ou big-bang dans le tête du rapporteur

http://alternatives-economiques.fr/blogs/abherve/files/abherve.jpgSur le blog de Michel Abhervé pour Alternatives économiques.Après un délai de 10 jours pour le moins surprenant entre la publication d’un résumé, assez en décalage avec ce qui sera le contenu rapport lui-même dans quelques médias (voir Où peut-on trouver le Rapport Davy? Jean-Marie Marx sera-t-il viré avant de prendre ses fonctions?) et la publication du rapport lui-même, et sans revenir sur ce que peut conduire à penser ce délai (voir Le rapport Davy et l’APEC: y-a-t-il eu intox ou le rapporteur a-t-il mangé son chapeau?), nous allons nous intéresser au contenu du rapport.
A la lecture de ce rapport intitulé “Sécuriser les parcours professionnels par la création d’un compte social universel”, nous restons très interrogatifs tant il comporte d’erreurs, d’affirmations non fondées, de propositions qui sont déjà en application, d’incohérences, d’évidences…, et quelques impasses, au point que nous avons l’impression que loin de traduire un big-bang de la formation comme le déclaraient les analyses préalables à la publication, il traduit un big-bang dans la tête du rapporteur qui n’a pas réussi à maitriser le sujet
Sans être exhaustif, nous allons en relever plusieurs aspects, en étant très surpris de voir comment un rapport qui s’appuie sur de nombreux rapports antérieurs, le plus souvent de qualité, qui a auditionné autant de personnes peut accumuler autant d’imprécisions, pour rester dans l’euphémisme...
Quant le rapport mentionne “il sera judicieux de créer une « VAE partielle »”, comment ne pas être étonné, puisque si, aujourd’hui, le jury de la VAE constate que les acquis ne correspondent pas à toutes les compétences, connaissances et aptitudes, il prend, très naturellement, la décision d’une validation partielle. Dans ce cas il est accordé une partie du diplôme et prescrit les modalités des actions  à entreprendre pour obtenir les modules qu’il reste à acquérir (reprise d’études, mémoire, travaux personnels, etc). Nul besoin de créer ce qui existe!
Quant dans le rapport est écrit “Il est utile de permettre au salarié de réaliser un bilan de compétences sans que ses résultats ne soient nécessairement communiqués à l’employeur” comment ne pas être éberlué ? Il suffit de consulter le site du Ministère du Travail pour se voir confirmé que “Les résultats du bilan sont la seule propriété du salarié. Ils ne peuvent être communiqués à l’employeur ou à toute autre personne qu’avec son accord ”. C’est ainsi, heureusement, depuis que le bilan de compétences existe...
Quel risque de voir des informations confidentielles ne plus l’être, surtout quand le même rapport propose serainement que des volontaires du service civique compensent les manques de postes à Pôle emploi (voir Le service civique pour compenser les manques de postes à Pôle emploi: c’est ce que propose le rapport Davy)...
Enfin, on ne peut qu’être interrogatif sur ce que ce rapport a compris de la logique économique des OPCA, puisqu’il veut leur enlever la gestion de la professionnalisation pour la confier aux FONGECIF, tout en affirmant son souhait de pouvoir s’appuyer sur des OPCA puissants! Comme le rapport Larcher qui, est sur beaucoup de plans plus sérieux et n’a pas pour sa part fondé ses propositions sur des faits erronés, (voir Le rapport Larcher: une critique de l’action du quinquennat, une affirmation libérale et le refus du référendum sur la formation des demandeurs d’emploi), mais  propose de supprime de son côté l’obligation légale du plan  de formation et donc l’autre ressource des OPCA, on s’interroge vraiment pour savoir comment des OPCA sans ressources vont pouvoir jouer leur rôle d’accompagnement et de conseil...
Voir aussi le Remise du rapport Davy, Rapport Davy préconise un big bang, Où peut-on trouver le Rapport Davy.
http://alternatives-economiques.fr/blogs/abherve/files/abherve.jpg bloggen af Michael Abhervé for økonomiske alternativer . Efter en periode på 10 dage i det mindste overraskende mellem offentliggørelsen af et sammendrag, helt i modstrid med, hvad der vil være selve rapporten, der er indeholdt i nogle medier (se Hvor kan jeg finde rapporten Davy? vil være Jean-Marie Marx han fyret, før han overtog embedet?) og offentliggørelsen af rapporten selv, og uden at gå tilbage på, hvad der kan føre til at tro, tid (se Den Davy rapport og APEC: har der været eller intox ordføreren kunne han spise sin hat?), vil vi se på indholdet af rapporten. Mere...

Posté par pcassuto à 22:29 - - Permalien [#]

Trois nouveaux Idex dont le A Midex d'Aix-Marseille Université

http://media.enseignementsup-recherche.gouv.fr/image/Cartographie/06/0/invest_avenir_465x310_207060.79.jpgTrois nouvelles conventions ont été signées dans le cadre de l'appel à projets "Initiatives d'excellence" du programme Investissements d'avenir. Par ailleurs, la convention du projet ISTEX, vaste programme d'acquisition d'archives scientifiques, a également été signée, marquant le lancement du projet.
L'Etat représenté par Laurent Wauquiez, Ministre de l'enseignement supérieur et de la recherche et Pascale Briand, directrice générale de l'Agence nationale pour la recherche (A.N.R.) ont signé le 19 avril les conventions de l'Initiative d'excellence du projet SUPER (Sorbonne Université) dotée de 900 millions d'euros, de P.S.L. (Paris Sciences et Lettres) dotée de 750 millions d'euros et de Saclay dotée de 950 millions d'euros. Ces signatures interviennent après celles de l'Idex de Bordeaux (700 millions d'euros), de Strasbourg, dotée de 750 millions d'euros et d'Aix-Marseille Université (A Midex) dotée de 750 millions d'euros. Ces projets vont permettre à quelques grands pôles universitaires d'affronter le 21e siècle et de se mesurer aux meilleures universités mondiales.

INITIATIVE D’EXCELLENCE « A*MIDEX » - Vers plus d’excellence avec Aix-Marseille Université

La fusion de l’Université de Provence, de l’Université de la Méditerranée et de l’Université Paul Cézanne a donné naissance à une université unique, puissante et pluridisciplinaire: « Aix Marseille Université ». L’idex A*MIDEX vise à lui permettre d’intégrer dans les 10 prochaines années le top 20 des universités européennes et le top 100 des universités mondiales.
Aix-Marseille Université (AMU)
, un potentiel exceptionnel au coeur d’un territoire dynamique AMU constitue d’ores et déjà un acteur majeur du paysage académique français, et rassemble plus de 4500 professeurs et enseignants-chercheurs, 19000 étudiants en Master et 4000 doctorants.
- 82% des laboratoires sont classés A+
- 2ème université française financée par l’ANR
- La constitution au 1er janvier 2012 de la première université française par la taille, et une des toutes premières européennes
- Une université considérée comme l’une des plus attractives dans le sud de l’Europe, leader dans le réseau Téthys des 34 universités euro-méditerranéennes.
- Une université en phase avec le monde socio-économique: des partenariats industriels solides (Sanofi en oncologie/immunologie ou le pôle du Rousset en micro-électronique qui produit environ 40% des composants en micro-électronique fabriqués en France chaque année).
- Une localisation privilégiée dans le bassin méditerranéen qui permet aux chercheurs en sciences humaines et sociales de décrypter à travers une approche pluridisciplinaire (sciences politiques, sociologie, économie, droit…) un monde en bouleversement.
Quelques exemples sont emblématiques de la qualité de sa recherche: la découverte de la première exoplanète, la participation à des projets d’envergure unique comme dans l’énergie avec ITER, la construction et la supervision de l’observatoire sous-marin ANTARES en Méditerranée, la découverte du gène de la Progéria, responsable du vieillissement précoce, la découverte du « Mimivirus », avancée fondamentale en microbiologie.
Des compétences et des forces rassemblées qui démontrent une véritable force de recherche
RECHERCHE : atteindre le top 100 mondial des universités de recherche

- Cinq secteurs prioritaires : l’énergie, l’environnement-la planète-l’univers, les sciences de la vie et de la santé, les sciences et technologies avancées, les sciences sociales.
- Une stratégie de recherche fondée sur les plateformes et infrastructures scientifiques financées par les investissements d’avenir : l’IHU « Méditerranée infection », l’équipement d’excellence PHENOMIX, 6 infrastructures, 4 cohortes labellisées en vague 1.
- Trois fonds joueront un rôle clé dans le financement de la recherche au sein de l’IDEX: un fonds pour le développement de projets interdisciplinaires, un fonds pour le lancement de projets innovants, un fonds « Etoiles montantes » pour promouvoir des jeunes talents.
- Un effort sans précédent de restructuration (réduction du nb de composantes de 40 à 22 UFR, de 150 à 118 unités de recherche, la fusion entre les 2 écoles d’ingénieurs).
FORMATION : atteindre une reconnaissance internationale par de hauts standards de qualité

- création d’une Académie de l’excellence pour concentrer l’ensemble des financements de l’idex pour la formation, qu’il s’agisse de formations courtes et professionnalisantes ou de formations longues, avec un objectif de 5 licences, 15 masters et 8 écoles doctorales labellisés à terme.
- développement d’un environnement de travail personnalisé pour faire progresser les étudiants:
tutorats par des chercheurs et professionnels expérimentés, séminaires en résidence avec des chercheurs de renommée internationale, stages exclusifs et accompagnement personnalisé en gestion de carrière, programmes d’échange et de doubles diplômes, système de bourses au mérite aux niveaux master et doctorat.
ATTRACTIVITE : deux objectifs principaux pour le site, attirer et rayonner
Des actions concrètes permettront d’attirer les meilleurs chercheurs de tous niveaux et d’être compétitifs au niveau international, par exemple:
- organisation de procédures compétitives internationales pour recruter sur contrat;
- des « packages » attractifs (salaires, primes annuelles, décharges de services, primes d’installation, budget de recherche spécifique) pour attirer les jeunes chercheurs, associés aux chaires d’excellence pour attirer les chercheurs seniors;
- des bonus pour valoriser la recherche, les initiatives pédagogiques, la mise en place de diplômes innovants;
- des « bourses IUF internes», des récompenses scientifiques;
- des bourses spécifiques de mobilité entrante et sortante de 5000 € au niveau master et 33 000 € augmentés de bonus de bienvenue au niveau doctorat pour attirer les meilleurs étudiants étrangers.
INTERNATIONAL : coupler une ambition internationale avec une identité euro-méditerranéenne

L’idex développera sa stratégie internationale selon deux axes:
- une recherche de partenariats de recherche avec les meilleures universités mondiales: en particulier avec le MIT en physique de la matière pour l’énergie et l’environnement, la Technische Universität München en nanosciences ou encore la Harvard Medical School pour l’immunologie.
- la volonté de devenir la capitale du savoir pour le Sud de l’Europe à travers le réseau Tethys, le campus Maison Méditerranéenne des Sciences de l’Homme (MMSH), l’Institut d’Etudes avancées IMéRA qui accueille en résidence des chercheurs internationaux de haut niveau.
Une action emblématique : la création d’un fonds international pour la recherche et la formation pour attirer et renforcer le rayonnement international
INNOVATION : repousser les limites de la recherche partenariale et des transferts de technologie
La fusion des trois IUT, celle des deux écoles d’ingénieurs qui préfigure la plus importante Ecole polytechnique universitaire en France, permettront de constituer un vivier de personnel technique de haut niveau adapté aux besoins des entreprises.
Différents outils permettront de booster les partenariats public-privé, dont: la SATT PACA CORSE, la Maison de l’Innovation et la Technologie dans le domaine de la sécurité, un fonds de transfert dédié aux projets de recherche, l’IHU POMIT sur les maladies infectieuses, et le démonstrateur CIMTECH.
VIE ETUDIANTE : Aix-Marseille est devenu un pôle d’attractivité majeur
Aix-Marseille constitue un véritable carrefour d’échanges sur la côte méditerranéenne. S’y ajoutent la proximité de la mer méditerranée, un climat agréable, la douceur de vivre à Aix-en-Provence et la réputation cosmopolite de Marseille, “ Capitale européenne de la Culture” en 2013. Les étudiants considèrent Aix-Marseille comme un lieu de premier choix, qu’ils classent parmi ceux où ils préfèreraient étudier, selon les dernières enquêtes. La restructuration des sites grâce à l’Opération Campus assurera une qualité d’accueil de nature à répondre à ces attentes.
Les partenaires de l’Initiative d’excellence

5 Organismes (CNRS, Inserm, CEA, IRD, IFSTTAR), 3 écoles (École Centrale de Marseille, Institut d’Études Politiques d’Aix-en-Provence, École des mines de St Etienne – Centre de Microélectronique de Provence à Gardanne), un établissement de santé (Assistance Publique des Hôpitaux de Marseille).

Tre nuovi accordi sono stati firmati nel quadro dell'invito a presentare progetti "Iniziative di eccellenza" programma di investimenti per il futuro. Inoltre, la Convenzione di ISTEX progetto, programma di acquisizione ampio archivi scientifici, è stato anche firmato, che segna il lancio del progetto.
Lo Stato rappresentato da Laurent Wauquiez, Ministro dell'istruzione superiore e della ricerca e Pascale Briand, Direttore Generale dell'Agenzia Nazionale per la Ricerca (ANR), firmato il 19 aprile convenzioni dell'iniziativa Excellence Progetto SUPER (Università della Sorbona) con 900 milioni di euro, di PSL (Lettere e Scienze di Parigi) con 750 milioni di euro e Saclay con 950 milioni di euro.
Queste firme vengono dopo quelli del Bordeaux Idex (700 milioni), di Strasburgo, con 750 milioni di euro e Aix-Marseille Università ( Midex A) con 750 milioni di euro. Progetti consentirà ad alcuni grandi centri universitari per affrontare il 21 ° secolo e competere con le migliori università del mondo. Più...

Posté par pcassuto à 20:56 - - Permalien [#]
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Changements organisationnels et acquis expérientiels

Par Paul Santelmann, Responsable de la Prospective à l’AFPA. De nombreuses études convergent pour établir un impact plutôt négatif des modernisations sur l’emploi des travailleurs âgés. Au début des années 2000  les salariés de plus de 40 ans étaient significativement moins nombreux dans les entreprises industrielles qui utilisaient l’informatique ou avaient développé des innovations organisationnelles [AUBERT, P. CAROLI, E. ROGER, M. (2006), « Nouvelles Technologies et Nouvelles Formes d’Organisation du Travail: Quelles conséquences pour l’emploi des salariés âgés? », Revue Economique, 57]. Plus globalement les différents types de modernisation semblent avoir favorisé l’éviction des salariés les plus âgés (innovations organisationnelles) et les discriminations à l’embauche des seniors (innovations technologiques). On mesure, à travers ces deux volets, le décrochage du système de formation continue en matière d’accompagnement des modernisations sous l’angle de l’emploi des travailleurs âgés. En effet la société française a érigé en dogme l’hypothèse que tout s’apprend en début de vie. Dans ce schéma l’expérience apparaît plus comme une consolidation ou un perfectionnement des acquis initiaux et s’avère comme un frein aux changements du système de production.Cette représentation est tellement ancrée qu’aucune capitalisation sérieuse des expériences de reconversion professionnelle de salariés anciens n’a été entreprise depuis le début de ces dispositifs ciblés sur les licenciés économiques!

La réticence à considérer l’expérience comme une ressource pour les transformations, les évolutions ou les innovations, est un trait marquant du pacte social à la française. Ainsi quand, dans les années 80, le critère de l’ancienneté a été déstabilisé par la gestion par les compétences l’expérience n’en a guère tiré profit! Les acquis expérientiels liés notamment aux parcours pluriels, aux pluri-compétences, aux mobilités, aux changements d’emploi n’ont guère été promus et reconnus.
Pourtant l’étude des différents types de modernisations (services et industries) montre que la décentralisation des pouvoirs de décisions a été le seul processus compatible avec le maintien d’une part importante de seniors dans les effectifs. Cette décentralisation a été mesurée selon trois critères: « réduction du nombre de niveaux hiérarchiques, définition du travail à accomplir par la fixation d’objectifs globaux, encouragement à la coopération directe entre salariés de différents services. »[ANANIAN, S. et AUBERT, P. 2006, « Travailleurs âgés, nouvelles technologies et changements organisationnels», Economie et statistique n° 397]. Ces options favorisent la prise en compte des compétences expérientielles notamment mises en œuvre par les cadres et professions intermédiaires. Or cette décentralisation des pouvoirs apparaît clairement comme le maillon faible des modernisations « à la française »!
Le maintien d’organisations centralisées et dirigistes a d’ailleurs limité ou retardé l’optimisation des innovations technologiques et leur diffusion aux salariés peu qualifiés. Ainsi les « nouvelles » organisations mises en place pour intégrer les mutations techniques ont rarement associé les salariés de base mais aussi les salariés les plus âgés. D’ailleurs c’est aussi pourquoi de nombreuses entreprises se sentent peu prêtes à intégrer les demandeurs d’emploi ayant le même profil. Quand on ne croit pas aux capacités d’adaptation des seniors, on ne croit pas plus à l’efficacité de la formation des chômeurs âgés. Enfin en dépréciant l’expérience des plus anciens on a largement déstabilisé la dimension collective du monde du travail et amputé les apports des anciens en matière de transmission limitant d’ailleurs les potentiels de l’alternance formative.
Tout cela remonte à la même source : la sous-estimation des modes d’activation de nouveaux savoirs au sein des collectifs de travail et la difficulté à saisir l’intérêt d’articuler nouvelles organisations et recomposition des savoirs collectifs (par exemple modifier les savoirs managériaux classiques) : « En accentuant trop la « rupture » entre les anciens et les nouveaux emplois, entre l’ancienne et la nouvelle organisation, entre les anciens et les nouveaux rapports au travail (passivité/mobilisation), entre les anciennes et les nouvelles « relations sociales » (collectivités/individualités), la plupart des expériences de modernisation « à la française » ont finalement conjugué frustration et sélectivité…» [DE BANDT, J.; DUBAR, C.; DEJOURS, C. 1995, La France malade du travail. Bayard éditions]
Paul Santelmann, vedúci Prognostického na Stredisko AFPA Mnoho štúdií smerujú k vytvoreniu skôr negatívny vplyv modernizácie na zamestnanosť starších pracovníkov. V skorých 2000 zamestnancov vo veku nad 40 boli významne nižšie u priemyselných podnikov, ktoré používajú počítače alebo organizačné inovácie vyvinul [Aubert, S. Caroli, E. ROGER, M. (2006), "Nové technológie a nové formy organizácie práce: jeho dôsledky pre zamestnávanie starších pracovníkov? "Economic Review, 57]. Viac všeobecne rôzne typy modernizácie Zdá sa, že prednosť vysídlenie starších pracovníkov (organizačné inovácie) a diskriminácii v najímania seniorov (technologické inovácie). Sa meria pomocou týchto dvoch zložiek, pád systému ďalšieho vzdelávania na podporu modernizácie, pokiaľ ide o zamestnávanie starších pracovníkov. Viac...

Posté par pcassuto à 20:47 - - Permalien [#]

Building professional accreditation into traditional degrees

The Guardian homeUniversities and professional bodies need to work together to develop graduate employability, says Ann Brine. Higher education institutions are increasingly aware of the need to set themselves apart from their competitors. In a competitive marketplace, some universities have chosen to trade on their brand, while others compete on price by offering attractive scholarships. These, however, are not the only factors that influence students' decisions – as Zahir Irani quite rightly pointed out in a recent post on this blog.
With students seeking out degrees that set them apart from their competitors in a crowded graduate job market, academics and higher education managers should recognise the value of and demand for courses offering a more business-orientated education. Embracing a tighter integration between business and higher education is one way to meet this demand.
Creating links between business and higher education is not new: various degree courses have long demanded at least one year of professional practice before final qualification, and optional year-in-industry schemes are an established, valuable success. What is innovative, though, is the extent to which some institutions are incorporating real-world business experience and professional training into courses that have traditionally been exclusively academic.
A growing number universities are implementing partnerships with professional bodies, integrating professional accreditation into every stage of a traditional degree – Southampton Solent University Business School and Coventry University, for example, are already successfully offering or planning to launch courses that incorporate qualifications from the Chartered Institute of Marketing. Here, students are able to study for professional certificates alongside their degrees, leaving with a respected academic qualification and a trusted professional standard of competency. Professional qualifications are also typically taught by tutors who are practising in the relevant sector, giving students valuable business contacts and networking opportunities, and bringing a welcome diversity to higher education institutions as a whole.
Furthermore, in a competitive higher education market, these benefits to students translate directly into benefits to institutions. Forging effective, productive links with business can be difficult for higher education institutions: relationships can sometimes be developed inconsistently and can be a challenge to administer and sustain. With their intimate knowledge of the demands of their sector and their established range of qualifications, professional bodies are ideally placed to assist higher education institutions looking for a structured, manageable and streamlined way to offer their prospective students a competitive advantage.
Working in partnership with professional bodies to deliver courses that combine academic and professional study might require us to reassess our idea of what it means to be a higher education institution. There can no longer be a neat divide between the worlds of business and education, and the higher education profession needs to continue to embrace this change. Students are looking to stretch themselves and add something more to their experience of university; higher education managers should welcome this and recognise that those institutions that support and meet this new demand will benefit from the highly motivated and engaged students they will attract.
Students entering higher education now have a huge range of options open to them, and this choice is absolutely something to be welcomed. However, it also means that higher education providers must work harder and offer more to attract the brightest and most highly motivated applicants. Those institutions that thrive in the new market environment will be those that adapt to the demand for a more business-oriented education – and offering professional qualifications alongside traditional degrees is one way to achieve this.
Ann Brine is a chartered marketer, a trustee of
The Chartered Institute of Marketing and visiting fellow at Southampton Solent University's Business School.

Posté par pcassuto à 09:47 - - Permalien [#]

What Is the Role for Governments in Global Higher Education

http://chronicle.com/img/photos/biz/icons/worldwise-nameplate.gifBy Jason Lane and Kevin Kinser. Last fall, the Canadian government announced the creation of a new advisory panel to identify ways to tie international education to the nation’s economic and trade policy. In Brazil, the government is providing 75,000 scholarships for students to study overseas in the next four years. Qatar has spent hundreds of millions of dollars on importing branch campuses from the United States and other western nations.
With all of this in mind, last week SUNY and OECD co-hosted a conference in New York City entitled “Internationalization for Job Creation and Economic Growth: Increasing Coherence of Government and System Policies at a Time of Global Crisis.” With more than 100 people from 17 nations in attendance, there were a variety of perspectives on this issue, but one common theme emerged: the economic impact of higher education’s international activities is attracting significant attention from university systems and governments.
While many recent conferences have focused on the rationales for internationalization or the international activities that occur at the institutional level, the focus of this meeting was to discuss the ways in which systems and governments are engaging in or inhibiting internationalization. In this post, we discuss the role of governments. We’ll look at the role of systems in a subsequent blog.
From the outset, we should say that an important undertone throughout the meeting was that folks had different levels of comfort with the importance that economic development should have as a driver of international education–as opposed to other values such as demands for global knowledge and student social development. Yet, all agreed that international work led by universities has economic value and that we should better understand how governments and systems are affected by it.
One of the major points that we took away from the meeting is that the organizational forms for higher education are in transition. The ivory tower, isolated from and disdainful of its civil surroundings is certainly a myth today, though it isn’t simply that the ivy walls are tumbling down. It’s that all sorts of new arrangements, partnerships, and linkages are emerging to connect the expertise within the university to private industry in the community. Some of these involve universities directly as stakeholders in the initiatives. Others, however, put forward market-oriented solutions that are outsourced to the private sector with negligible university control. For example, we heard stories of multinational partnerships that created an innovative product design initiative by combining the research expertise of the university with the exacting market-based expectations of a manufacturing corporation. We also learned about how government and industry support can aid in internationalization efforts for students attending universities — less direct market value, perhaps, but with economic impact in terms of developing a globally competitive workforce.
The second theme is how governments around the globe are playing an increasingly important role in international education. There seem to be two forces driving national policies related to international education. The first is national security. At the most basic level governments control our international borders and they decide who can enter the country. Visa policies for international students are often the primary interaction between universities and governments in this arena. But government leaders are also influenced by economic motivations. International students bring new money to struggling institutions and local economies. For example, in 2010 the value of educational exports in the United States, which is mostly generated from foreign students studying in the United States, exceeded $20-billion. In addition, in nations with an aging or declining population, immigrants are important component of the nation’s workforce. In some cases we learned that governments are adjusting their visa policies to allow the foreign students to become foreign workers in industries demanding new and talented labor. We also discussed the many examples of nations such as Brazil and China that are subsidizing thousands of their students to study overseas.
We also noted how governments are interested in more than just students moving around the globe. The creation of foreign outposts where universities conduct research and teaching overseas is also being viewed as a way to create economic ties to with foreign nations. Not only do these outposts contribute to the local economies in which they reside, but in many cases they also serve to support the economic and trade policies of the home government. Of course the regulatory role of governments is clear here–both the importing and exporting governments have to allow for the creation of such entities. But, in nations such as Malaysia, China, Singapore, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates, the governments have actively recruited and subsidized such initiatives as well. The emergence of education hubs and cities doesn’t occur without government support.
The conclusion is that government motivation to pay attention to internationalization is not about the experience of the individual student or institutional prestige. Rather it focuses on the expected contributions of international engagements to the nation’s economic and innovation systems. It remains true that most international-education activities emanate from individual colleges and universities. But discussions about internationalization must include the role that governments play in facilitating or inhibiting such activities.
How have you seen governments affect, positively or negatively, international education?

Posté par pcassuto à 00:07 - - Permalien [#]