The new on-line tool provides you with the detailed data and results of the latest medium-term forecasts of skill supply and demand in Europe.
The data and results are intended to provide general indications of patterns and trends in skill supply and demand (measured by occupation and qualification) across the whole of Europe. They are based on a quantitative methodology, using a combination of National Accounts, European Labour Force Survey and other relevant data
The last update of the data was published in March 2012. The next update is expected in spring 2013.
Welcome to the new Cedefop’s on-line tool which provides you with the detailed data and results of the latest medium-term forecasts of skill supply and demand in Europe. The last update of the data was published in March 2012. The next update is expected in spring 2013. The data and results are intended to provide general indications of patterns and trends in skill supply and demand (measured by occupation and qualification) across the whole of Europe. They are based on high level quantitative methodology, using a combination of National Accounts, European Labour Force Survey and other relevant data.
This issue of IIENetworker highlights a wide range of innovative ways that colleges, universities, governments, and other organizations encourage and support faculty engagement in internationalization. Click here for the digital edition.
Engaging Science Faculty in Internationalization: Teaching Innovations at UW-Madison
Masarah Van Eyck, Laura Van Toll, Michel Wattiaux, and John Ferrick, University of Wisconsin-Madison
Early-College Study Abroad: A Gateway for Faculty Engagement in Internationalization
James M. Lucas, Michigan State University; Paige E. Sindt, CEA Global Education; Kira Espiritu, University of San Diego; and Jessica Luchesi, University of San Diego
Promoting Engagement in Curriculum Internationalization
Hilary Landorf and Stephanie Doscher, Florida International University
The International Network of Universities: The Consortium for Global Citizenship
Melanie Pissarius, James Madison University; Ingrid Elam, Malmo University; Hajime Nishitani, Hiroshima University; Lee Sternberger, James Madison University
Ten Elements of Faculty Involvement in Global Engagement
Woody Pelton, Elon University
Building an Interculturally Competent Faculty
Darla K. Deardorff, Duke University
China's Policies on Overseas Faculty Requirement
Yiqun Geng, Communication University of China
Overcoming the "American Bubble": The Norwegian Partnership Programme for Collaboration in Higher Education with North America
Agnete Vabo and Rachel Sweetman, NIFU Nordic Institute for Studies in Innovation, Research and Education
Overcoming "Publish or Perish": Fostering Faculty Engagement in Internationalization through Tenure Codes and Other Employment Policies
Robin Matross Helms, Institute of International Education
A Shrinking World with Expanding Visions: Faculty as Key Players in Internationalization
Andrew Riess, Institute of International Education.
IIENetworker University Presidents Interview Series: Renu Khator, University of Houston. Click here for the digital edition.
Past issues of IIENetworker are available in our digital edition archives: http://www.naylornetwork.com/iie-nxt/index.asp.
Higher Education’s Commitment to Sustainability: from Understanding to Action. Canada and USA Regional Report
In this article Tarah Wright from Dalhousie University in Canada presents a condensed version of the regional report on Canada and USA included in the GUNi Report Higher Education in the World 4.
Canada and the United States of America (USA) both have a rich history and have played pivotal roles in the development of the global movement to inspire higher education institutions (HEIs) to take a lead role in creating a sustainable future. An historic attempt to define and promote sustainability in higher education was made in the creation of the Talloires Declaration in the early 1990s. While the Talloires is an international declaration that now enjoys over 418 signatories worldwide (USA n=163, Canada n=33), the initiative was American-led.
The 1990s also saw the proliferation of not-for-profit organizations and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) focused on sustainability in higher education in North America. University Leaders for a Sustainable Future (ULSF) was officially established as the Secretariat for signatories of the Talloires Declaration in the early 1990s. ULSF became independent of Center for Respect of Life and Environment (CRLE) in 2007, functioning as a virtual organization and continues to maintain its position as Secretariat for signatories of the Talloires Declaration.
Around the same time, the National Wildlife Federation established its Campus Ecology program which has become a leading conservation program in higher education.
In 1991 Learning for a Sustainable Future (LSF) was established in Canada by a diverse group of youth, educators, business leaders, government and community members. LSF is charged with leading the Canadian response to the UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (2005-2014) through the implementation in Canada.
Second Nature was founded in Boston in 1993. Since then it has worked with over 4,000 faculty and administrators at more than 500 colleges and universities to help make the principles of sustainability fundamental to every aspect of higher education.
The Association for the Advancement of Sustainability in Higher Education (AASHE) has arguably become the largest organization for university sustainability in North America. Launched in January 2006, it serves as the first professional higher education association for the campus sustainability community.
Many partnerships have been established as a result of the higher education for sustainability movement. For example, the Higher Education Association Sustainability Consortium (HEASC) was formed to support and enhance the capacity of higher education to fulfill its critical role in producing an educated and engaged citizenry and the knowledge needed for a thriving and civil society.
Established in 2006, Education for Sustainable Development Canada (ESD Canada) brings together a broad range of stakeholders from across the country to support systemic change toward ESD within the formal, non-formal and informal education systems.
The United States Partnership for Education for Sustainable Development (USPESD) was first conceived in November 2003 and is a response to the call by the UN General Assembly for a Decade of Education for Sustainable Development.
Major Conferences and Initiatives
The Greening of the Campus Conference (known to many as colloquially as “Ball State”) is perhaps the longest running conference focused on sustainability in higher education in North America. While a relative newcomer, the biannual AASHE conference has become one of the most popular sustainability in higher education events in North America.
CURRICULUM AND LEARNING PROCESSES
Stand Alone Programs
According to the Association of University and Colleges of Canada, there are over 200 degree, diploma and certificate programs offered in French and English related to the environment across the country. However, there are very few programs that contain the term sustainability in the title. In the USA, there are over 20 universities and colleges with undergraduate programs related to sustainability. One of the best-known is the School of Sustainability at Arizona State University. The School offers flexible, interdisciplinary, and problem-oriented BAs and BSs in Sustainability.
General Education Programs
In the USA, many universities have general education (GE) requirements that students are required to take. In some cases the general education requirements are set by the state, in others, the general education requirements are set by the individual school. According to Rowe (2002), a number of colleges and universities have incorporated an in-depth exposure to environmental literacy and/or sustainability in their GE requirements. For example, the Stanford I-Earth curriculum.
Certificates and Diplomas in Sustainability
Some universities in both the United States and Canada have seen the benefit in creating concurrent and post-degree certificates and diplomas in sustainability. For example, Ryerson University in Toronto has developed a professional development certificate in sustainability for individuals from any disciplinary background.
Integrating Sustainability across the Curriculum
While interdisciplinary programs related specifically to sustainability are most welcome in North America, many feel that sustainability must be integrated into the traditional academic disciplines if we are to create positive sustainable change. The AASHE offers the Sustainability Across the Curriculum Leadership Workshop for faculty leaders of all disciplines who wish to develop curriculum change programs around sustainability on their campuses.
INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT AND OPERATIONS
A major step Canadian and US universities have taken to become more sustainable is to establish sustainable practices in campus management and operations, attempting to model sustainable behaviour in the development of buildings, dining services, energy, grounds, transportation, purchasing, waste management, water, financing, investing and policy development. Many universities have found campus greening initiatives to be cost-effective in the long run. AASHE has online records concerning best practices and institutions that are currently implementing projects in a wide variety of operational and management aspects. In North America, there is a growing trend toward using schools as living laboratories, allowing students to gain hands-on experience while improving their campus or community. For example, the Arizona State University has created the Campus Living Laboratory Network (CLLN) to facilitate work on campus sustainability projects between students, staff and faculty. At the University of British Columbia Farm, students have the opportunity to be involved in various learning and research initiative.
Research is a critical tool in developing a sustainable future, and universities have a responsibility to contribute through their scholarly activities.
Canada and the United States host a multitude of centres dedicated to sustainability research in general (e.g. the International Institute for Sustainable Development, the Canadian Consortium for Sustainable Development Research at the University of British Columbia, the Earth Institute Columbia University, the Institute for Sustainable Solutions at Portland State University, and the Global Institute of Sustainability at Arizona State University). There are many research centres dedicated to environmental education within HEIs, but few research centres dedicated to sustainability in higher education. Exceptions are the Centre for Environmental and Sustainability Education at Florida Gulf Coast University, the Robert A. Macoskey Center for Sustainable Systems Education and Research at Slippery Rock University, and the Center for Environmental Sustainability Education at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee.
In North America, the majority of the research dedication to sustainability in higher education is disseminated through traditional academic means such as journal articles, books, and newsletters. In a bibliometric study of English-language journal articles related to education for sustainable development from 1990 to 2005, Wright and Pullen (2007) found that approximately 70% of the manuscripts published resulted from individuals working at a Canadian or US university. The majority of North American authors published in the International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education produced and published in Europe. The only North American journal that focuses almost exclusively on sustainability in higher education is Sustainability: The Journal of Record which began in March 2008.
ANALYZING THE PRESENT AND LOOKING TO THE FUTURE
While it is apparent that Canada and the USA have made significant steps toward sustainability in higher education, the challenges and barriers to advancing individual universities toward sustainability (e.g. financial, leadership, communications) as identified by Wright and Filho (2002) are still very real in Canada. A recent study of twenty-three Canadian university presidents revealed that the most significant constraints to moving toward sustainability in higher education were seen as financial, lack of understanding and awareness of sustainability issues amongst the university population, and a resistance to change (Wright, 2008). These challenges are ubiquitous as well for the movement in Canada and the USA. The problems are further exacerbated by the large geography of the two countries, and the relatively recent development of the scholarly field. Finally, many of the metrics needed to determine the advance of the sustainability in higher education movement are unavailable. Currently, while the anecdotal information is rich, there are no agencies that officially collect information on the quantity or quality of sustainability curriculum in these countries, the number of and initiatives of sustainability officers and offices on university campuses, the progress of campuses in developing green buildings and modeling sustainability through operations, and the amount of research funding dedicated to sustainability in higher education research.
The following strategies and actions are suggested to advance sustainability in higher education in Canada and the USA:
- Develop indicators to assess the progression of sustainability in higher education at national and international levels.
- Develop innovative and creative initiatives to engage the university community in discussions about the role the university can play in creating a sustainable future.
- Promote a deeper understanding of sustainability amongst societal leaders.
- Promote the development of university-wide undergraduate academic programs that allow students to learn for a sustainable future.
- Promote the development of active and empowering curriculum focused on creating change for a sustainable future.
- Support the development of tenure criteria that acknowledges and honours cross-disciplinary work in sustainability.
- Create campus sustainability officer positions at each university in Canada and the USA.
- Develop regional, national, and international networks of scholars engaging in research in the field of sustainability in higher education.
- Further develop the list of research priorities for the field.
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Aboiut the Author
Tarah Wright is an associate professor at Dalhousie University, Canada, where she has played a pivotal role in the successful creation of the Environmental Science Program and co-creation of the university’s new and innovative College of Sustainability. She serves on the editorial boards of the International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, and the Encyclopedia of Quality of Life Research, is a Member of the Scientific Advisory Board for Environmental Management for Sustainable Universities (EMSU), and is a co-organizer for World Sustainable Development Teach-In Day.
In this article Jahir Calvo, of the Panama University of Technology, analyzes women’s access to higher education as a crucial component in the development process.
Throughout history, women have had only a limited role in society with restricted opportunities (Vanderslice and Litsch, 1998). The latter fact, highlighted in this article as ‘the women’s issue’, prevails even in this new era, where we found that gender inequalities continue to primarily disadvantaging this group (ESU, 2008).
Education -that nowadays has been recognized by a number of international conventions as a human right and a development imperative-, is one of the spheres that has suffered this women’s issue. As pointed out by UNESCO (2012), the preference to males over females in education has been a marked feature since ancient societies, practice that has shaped today’s gender disparities in this sector in virtually all countries.
Papadópulos and Radakovich (2005) note that higher education (HE) was precisely the best environment for reproducing such gender disparities in education, since this level was not considered a space properly ‘feminine’. From this it follows that access of women to this level of education has gone through a story of a long struggle. Many adversities for women arose. However, they have not remained silent and have fought actively since centuries ago in order to change such exclusion.
The first World Atlas of Gender Equality in Education published by UNESCO (2012) gives proof that trends towards change are on the race. As the report states, in the last four decades an almost entirely reversion of the historical process of exclusion of women in HE has occurred and they have gained some more or much access to this level of education. Notwithstanding this, at barely three years of compliance with the deadline set for the HE sector in the goal 5 of the Dakar Framework for Action 2000 of the Education for All (EFA) movement, and in the target 4 of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), the same UNESCO (2012) report has identified two regions in which the HE system persists to be unfair to women, showing still great disparity in disadvantage for them. These are: South and West Asia and in sub-Saharan Africa.
In this backdrop the present research work captures and presents a first set of considerations regarding the women’s access to the HE landscape, in order to gain an insight into the phenomenon. With this aim, the author seeks to create awareness about the importance of the issue, as well as stimulate further reading and research on the topic for those of us who are interested in becoming agents of change in benefit of an educational system free of discrimination and unequal treatment for this twenty-ﬁrst century.
The importance of women’s participation in education
Education is recognized by UNESCO (2012) as “a fundamental human right – one that all individuals are entitled to enjoy whatever the circumstances in which they live – that also brings important benefits to human society as a whole” (p. 8). To achieve faster these benefits, states De Mcpherson (1999), it is necessary the participation of men and women on an equal basis. In that sense, stresses the author, keeping women away in all aspects of the development process only by reason of gender, is a waste of valuable resources, even more when they constitute half of the population. The position of the UNESCO (1998a) in this regard is that women have the right to the same opportunities as their male counterparts; therefore, they also have to be seen as part of the essential human resource base of every nation.
The women’s issue presented above has been clearly evidenced throughout history in the entire world. As stated by Vanderslice and Litsch (1998), women have had only a limited role in society with restricted opportunities. Even in this new era, this harsh reality somehow remains true, and gender inequalities continue to primarily disadvantage women, who suffer much more from the discrimination that occurs to both genders (ESU, 2008). The education sector, including its highest level in its ladder, meaning HE, has been also influenced by ‘the women’s issue’, even though the academia has been perceived itself as progressive part of society (ESU, 2008).
Relatedly, the importance of women’s participation in education is critical (UNESCO, 1998c). Dundar and Haworth (1993) cited that “education of women is important not only from the angle of equal education opportunity between the sexes, but also for the substantial social and economic returns to female education that can be achieved by raising women's productivity and income level, producing better educated and healthier children, and reducing fertility rates” (p. 1). Vanderslice and Litsch (1998), in turn, expressed that women who have increased education are more aware about opportunities for themselves. They are more self-confident, open minded and more competitive, added the authors. Apart from that, point out Kelly and Slaughther (1991), “through qualifications and credentials secured through the higher learning, women would equip themselves for all manners of professional positions, entering the market place and political arena with the same advantages as men” (p. 3). Taking into account these perspectives and context, Bonilla et al. (2005) concluded that women, through their participation in education, are becoming then agents of change.
Story of a long struggle
As stated by Papadópulos and Radakovich (2005), traditionally, HE was not a space considered properly "feminine", being one of the best environments to reproduce gender inequalities. Only men were the ones that had access to this level of education as part of their successful integration into the public sphere and social recognition, while women were invisible in the private sphere and assigned to the tasks of reproduction, and family and home care.
According to Itatí (2006), women were in principle excluded in HE since the creation of the first and oldest university in the world, University of Bologna in Italy. As explains the author, such discriminatory practice had its roots in a 1377 Decree of this university which stated that woman was considered the prime reason of sin, the weapon of the devil, the cause of man's expulsion from paradise and the destruction of the old law.
In her piece of work, titled Women’s access to Higher Education, Itatí tells us about the existence of two periods in relation to women's access to HE. In the first period, few women accessed in an exceptional way, while others when disguised as men. The second period, which the author calls a systematic process, the access was as gender.
The researcher points out that despite the Decree of the aforementioned University of Bologna, a few aristocratic women were able to enter the same university from the late Middle Ages. In the XVIII century, a great debate about the ability of women to access university education, caused that some claimed the right of women to education and knowledge, arguing that men and women have equal capacities and that ‘the mind has no sex’, while others refused to this, and emphasized the roles that men and women have in society. In this climate of debate, the author reports also that two women studied and graduated assuming a masculine identity.
Turning now to the second period characterized for being a systematic process that considered the conceptualization of gender, Itatí notes that it started in the XIX century as a slow but steady process, the same that was accompanied by growing demands and feminist struggle for equal rights for both sexes. The U.S. was the first country to participate in the process, which then expanded into Europe, reaching later Latin America at the end of the century. In almost all these regions, the first graduate women were doctors, reports the researcher. Once within the system, the discussion on the participation of women in HE became, among others, in a discussion about the type of study that best correspond to the feminine nature. Many barriers had to be overcame by women, first to gain access to university studies, second to graduate, and finally to practice the profession, since each one of these steps did not necessarily imply the other, as were the case of men. Throughout this process appeared many detractors, who argued on women’s physical, intellectual and moral inferiority; and that the Mother Nature made man rational and woman emotional. Despite this, women did not remain silent, and went to universities, became professionals in fields that did not represent an abrupt break with the conceptions of gender at that particular point of time. Undoubtedly, these first tertiary educated women clearly perceived discrimination for being female, reason that led them to fight actively in order to change this situation (Itatí, 2006).
Trends towards change
Undoubtedly, the status of women has been a matter of international concern for decades (ECLAC, 1999). During this time, things have changed and women in most countries of the world have gained some or much access to HE, level at which UNESCO (2012) recognizes women enrolments have seen the greatest increase. The evidence shows that this tremendous progress -sometimes described as a silent revolution-, started centuries ago. In the opinion of Kelly and Slaughther (1991), this progress is considered as a hallmark that has totally changed gender representation in the HE landscape over the last decades, not only because the gradual exponential increase in the numbers of women receiving tertiary education worldwide, but also because women has gained admiration when exceeding men in grades, evaluations and degree completion in several fields of study [Buchmann et al., 2008 (cited in UNESCO, 2012) and Papadópulos & Radakovich, 2005). Undoubtedly, stresses UNESCO, this “should be seen as a positive development, especially given the spillover effects that benefit the individual, households and societies” (UIS-UNESCO, 2010, p.71).
Roughly speaking, Bosco (2009) assures that the progress reached has been the result of the development of human rights and the democratization of societies. From the UNESCO viewpoint, this has been the result of the changing values and attitudes related to the role and aspirations of women in society, the higher levels of schooling that women are requiring in order for them to attain social mobility, their need for higher incomes, and the ongoing diffusion of ideas on the subject of gender egalitarianism across countries (UIS-UNESCO, 2010). The research work carried out also notes the contribution done by international gender agendas from organizations such as the United Nations and UNESCO which have been especially effective in areas of advocacy and have developed normative instruments, resolutions, declarations and recommendations to assure and advance, among others, the gender equality in education.
These above factors, among others, have led to a point of almost entirely reversion of the historical processes of exclusion cited in previous sections. In the meantime, HE gained momentum as a key player in the consolidation of the structures of equal opportunities between men and women, changing the preconceived role that women should be marginalized and subordinated, to a situation in which they have autonomy and the possibility of intervention in decision processes (Bosco, 2009). From the World Economic Forum viewpoint, this indicates that we are at a unique turning point in history, a stage in which we note that the issue of gender parity has became more pronounced as never before (World Economic Forum, 2010).
A review of latest trends towards change in women’s access to HE reported by UNESCO (2012) in its first World Atlas of Gender Equality in Education demonstrates the expansion at an unprecedented rate for women in HE from 1970 to 2009. As stated by the report, during this period women have been the principal beneficiaries of the HE expansion phenomenon in all regions, growing their participation from 8 to 28 percent, in comparison with men that went from 11 percent in 1970 to 26 percent in 2009; thus, shifting gender disparity from male to female dominance. According to Rama (2009), such trend towards change in women’s access to HE will continue over the coming decades, even though it is possible to assume that in the long run it will follow a slower pace.
Following the above line of analysis from the UNESCO (2012) report, figure 1 notes that in 1970 the Gross Enrolment Radio (GER) was higher for men than women in all regions, with the notable exception of Central and Eastern Europe. As stated by the report, and as it can be also seen in figure 1, by 2009 four regions (North America and Western Europe, Latin America and the Caribbean, Central and Eastern Europe, and East Asia and the Pacific) had reached the point where the GER favored women, only two region continued to have men advantage (sub-Saharan Africa and South and West Asia), and one region showed parity (Arab States). From the regions showing disparity, it is noted that North America and Western Europe had the largest GRE favoring women, while sub-Saharan Africa had the largest favoring men.
Figure 1. Gross enrolment ratio in HE by region and worldwide, years 1970 and 2009
Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics, cited in UNESCO, 2012, p. 77.
Expanding the discussions of gender differences in HE over the last four decades, the UNESCO (2012) report also analyzed the situation in terms of the changes of the Gender Parity Index (GPI), measure that in this case represents the women’s GRE in relation to men’s GRE. As pointed out by the report and as shown in figure 2, the worldwide GPI rose dramatically from 0.74 in 1970 to 1.08 in 2009, the latter value that falls within the range of parity defined by UNESCO (between 0.97 and 1.03), thus, indicating a global achievement in this regard, slightly in favor of women. What is interesting to note from figure 2 is how regions in the last four decades have strived to achieve gender parity in favor of women, as indicated by an adjusted GPI greater than 1.03. From only one region with an index favoring women in 1970 (Central and Eastern Europe), the figure shows three more with this characteristic in 2009 (North America and Western Europe, Latin America and the Caribbean and Central Asia); thus, accounting the majority of the regions. However, a different pattern is found in South and West Asia and in sub-Saharan Africa, where the HE system persists to be unfair to women, showing still great disparity in disadvantage for them. This female under-representation in these regions could be the result of the low levels of national wealth (UNESCO, 2012) and the difficult social setting (Dundar & Haworth, 1993) that characterizes the countries that are part of the same.
Figure 2. Adjusted gender parity index for gross enrolment ratio in HE, 1970–2009
Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics, cited in UNESCO, 2012, p. 77.
Analyzing the data from the perspective of the various education levels, the UNESCO, (2012) report notes that women have reached parity with men in earning Bachelor’s degrees. In Master’s degrees, they have an edge over men, accounting 56%. However, a different story is found at the highest levels of education (Ph.D.), where they only account for 44%.
Turning now to gender differences in various fields of study, the Millennium Development Goals Report 2010 notes that women are overrepresented in the humanities and social sciences and significantly underrepresented in science, technology and, in particular, engineering (United Nations, 2010). However, scanning through the rich literature on the topic, it is broadly argued that women is making have also made tremendous progress by entering into fields they did not have much presence before, due to the traditionally conception of male-dominated fields. According to Papadopoulos and Radakovich (2005) the progress reached means the beginning of a process for overcoming some of the stereotyped barriers, giving the welcome to a new phenomenon of cultural transition of great significance for equalizing gender opportunities.
Women, on an equal basis as their male counterparts, are part of the essential human resource base of each country that contributes to its competitiveness and sustainable development. Keeping them away only by unfair reasons of gender is indeed a waste of this valuable resource, as stressed by De Mcpherson (1999). Consequently, adds the World Economic Forum (2010), they must be treated equally with the same opportunities as men, if a country wants to grow and prosper faster. The latter confirms why UNESCO (1998a) highlighted that the entire gender issue has gained worldwide attention as a crucial component in the development process.
Despite that nowadays voices of all women everywhere have been acknowledged, human rights have been developed in favor of them, societies have been subject of democratization and changing values processes, and international gender egalitarianism agendas have been settled, the World Economic Forum (2010) assures that we still need a true gender equality revolution. From the UNESCO viewpoint –other of the international organizations that have been especially effective in the areas of advocacy and aims to foster a gender-inclusive culture-, this revolution implies, in more or less, a public recognition that innumerable obstacles and challenges exist and need to be tackled (UNESCO, 1998c).
Education constitutes one important sector that deserves special attention when tackling these obstacles and challenges. It has helped in reducing the gap and is empowering women to take their full place in the world of the 21st century, where multiple internationally agreed development goals should be reached with their help.
Non-discriminatory education that could benefit both women and men is the key for keeping the promise of education for all. The mind has no sex, so it is important the recognition of the equal rights to women for all levels of education, including HE, the latter sector where women are becoming agents of change (Bonilla et al., 2005).
Even though HE was in its beginning the best environment for reproducing gender inequalities, due to its conception as a space not considered properly "feminine" (Papadópulos and Radakovich, 2005), nowadays, it has been recognized as a human right and an essential tool for achieving equality (UNESCO, 1995) due to its imputable high impact on the future of a society. Thus, the evidence here strongly supports a process of an almost entirely reversion of that historical exclusion, and we have witnessed a gradual exponential increase in the numbers of women receiving tertiary education worldwide.
However, such fantastic figures are often only a mirage of what actually happens in the HE system, argue Kiss et al. (2007). It is true that female enrolment has actually increased, but it focuses, among others, on academic programs associated with the roles women traditionally exercised. In that sense, the authors wonder whether this is the equality and equity we need.
UNESCO (1998b) has recognized that indeed, various socio-economic, cultural and political obstacles continue in many places in the world to impede their full access and effective integration into HE.
Achieving the latter is not only about access to learning, but much more broadly, of challenging the learning environments, the curricula, the attitudes, the gender ideologies in both education and society, and wider political, economic and social considerations (UIS-UNESCO, 2010).
The analysis carried out revealed that the basis of the women’s issue is strongly linked to gender stereotypes and old paradigms that still prevail. According to De Mcpherson (2000) the old paradigms are the most difficult barrier to deal with. However, stresses also the author, in the same way these paradigms were learned, they can be unlearned and surpassed, and others conceptions more equitable or just can be encouraged.
The progress reached so far by women in the HE sphere, and underlined in this research work, means the beginning of a process for overcoming these stereotyped barriers and old paradigms, giving the welcome to a new phenomenon of cultural transition of great significance for equalizing gender opportunities (Papadopoulos & Radakovich, 2005).
We should no forget, however, that equalizing gender opportunities in HE not only refers to women. As stated by De Leon (2004), it would be desirable to encourage also men to participate more actively in this level of education, since in the long run we will be producing a new gap between both sexes.
It appears that current efforts are not enough, and urgent priorities remain for renewing processes of systems and institutions that strive for strengthening the role of women in this sector, and their contribution to social development in general (UNESCO, 1998a; UNESCO, 1998b).
UIS-UNESCO (2010) recommends at all governments, parliaments and other decision-makers, HE institutions, the international community, civil society and other partners to take stock of the rich body of evidence of the phenomenon, to make gender equality the hallmark of all education policy and re-affirm our commitment to education and gender equality. In this regard, it is important to go beyond any rhetoric and involve policies and programs with measurable results. Furthermore, men and women should work together and in partnership towards the common goal of gender equality around the world.
Finally, it is worth noting that the rich literature resorted in writing this article has confirmed that women and gender studies have been developed worldwide, raising awareness about women and gender issues and occupying a prominent place as a catalyst in enhancing their participation in many spheres, including HE. According to UNESCO (1998b), these studies should be promoted as a field of knowledge, strategic for the transformation of HE and society.
Bonilla,V. et al. (2005). Feminización de la matrícula de Educación Superior en Puerto Rico. [Feminization of enrollment in Higher Education in Puerto Rico]. URL: http://cie.uprrp.edu/cuaderno/ediciones/20/pdf/c20art7.pdf (Retrieved December 25, 2010)
Bosco, J. (2009). Universidad, globalización y heterogeneidad institucional. [University, globalization and institutional diversity]. Panama: Universidad Especializada de las Américas.
De Mcpherson, M. (1999). Estudio sobre la decisión de la mujer por ingresar en carreras de tecnología dura. Caso: Universidad Tecnológica de Panamá. [Study on the woman's decision to enter tough technology careers. Case: Panama University of Technology]. Unpublished doctoral thesis, Universidad Interamericana de Educación a Distancia, Panama, Panama.
De McPherson, M. (2000). Mujer, ciencia y tecnología. [Women, science and technology]. Panama: Instituto de la mujer
Dundar, H. and Haworth, J. (1993). Improving women's access to Higher Education: A review of World Bank project experience. URL: http://www-wds.worldbank.org/servlet/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2000/07/19/000009265_3961004075720/Rendered/PDF/multi_page.pdf (Retrieved December 21, 2010)
ECLAC (1999). Participation and leadership in Latin America and the Caribbean: Gender indicators. URL: http://www.eclac.org/publicaciones/xml/2/4792/lcl1302i.pdf (Retrieved December 21, 2010)
ESU (2008). Policy paper on gender equality in Higher Education. URL: http://www.esu-online.org/news/article/6064/100/ (Retrieved December 20, 2010)
Itatí, A. (2006). El acceso a las mujeres a la educación universitaria [Women access to Higher Education]. Revista Argentina de Sociología, 4(7), 11-46. URL: http://redalyc.uaemex.mx/pdf/269/26940702.pdf (Retrieved December 22, 2010)
Kelly, P. and Slaughther, S. (1991). Women and Higher Education: Trends and perspectives. In Paradise, G. and Slaughter, S. (Eds.), Women's higher education in comparative perspective (pp. 3-16). The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Kiss, D., Barrios, O., and Alvarez, J. (2007). Inequidad y diferencia. Mujeres y desarrollo académico [Inequality and difference: Women and academic development]. Revista Estudos Feministas,15(1),85-105. DOI: 10.1590/S0104-026X2007000100006
Papadópulos, J. and Radakovich, R. (2005). Estudio comparado de Educación Superior y género en América Latina y el Caribe. [Comparative study of Higher Education and gender in Latin America and the Caribbean]. URL: http://www.cned.cl/public/Secciones/SeccionRevistaCalidad/doc/52/CSE_resumen520.pdf (Retrieved December 14, 2010)
Rama, C. (2009). La tendencia a la masificación de la cobertura de la Educación Superior en América Latina. [The trend toward the massification of Higher Education coverage in Latin America]. Revista Iberoamericana de Educación, 50, 173-195. URL: http://redalyc.uaemex.mx/pdf/800/80011741010.pdf (Retrieved December 10, 2010)
UIS-UNESCO (2010). Global education digest 2010: Comparing education statistics across the world (Adobe Digital Editions version). URL: http://www.uis.unesco.org/template/pdf/ged/2010/GED_2010_EN.pdf (Retrieved December 22, 2010)
UNESCO (1995). Beijing declaration and platform for action: Fourth world conference on women. URL: http://www.unesco.org/education/information/nfsunesco/pdf/BEIJIN_E.PDF (Retrieved December 10, 2010)
UNESCO (1998a). Higher Education and women: Issues and perspectives. URL: http://www.unesco.org/education/educprog/wche/principal/women.html (Retrieved December 17, 2010)
UNESCO (1998b). Higher Education in the twenty-first century: Vision and action. URL: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0011/001163/116345e.pdf (Retrieved March 15, 2010)
UNESCO (1998c). Women and management in Higher Education: A good practice handbook. URL: http://www.unesco.org/education/pdf/singh.pdf (Retrieved December 16, 2010)
UNESCO (2005a). Science, technology and gender: An international report (Adobe Digital Editions version). URL: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0015/001540/154045e.pdf (Retrieved December 22, 2010)
UNESCO (2005b). World report on science, technology and gender. URL: http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CBIQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.science.oas.org%2Fgender%2FEMartinez_STGender_WReport_0408.ppt&ei=GZIiTYTZAcP6lweo-_yXDA&usg=AFQjCNFxJZzDe96iJD2WPkUrQcyS99zFpw (Retrieved November 10, 2010)
UNESCO (2009). 2009 World conference on Higher Education: The new dynamics of Higher Education and research for societal change and development. URL: http://www.unesco.org/fileadmin/MULTIMEDIA/HQ/ED/ED/pdf/WCHE_2009/FINAL%20COMMUNIQUE%20WCHE%202009.pdf (Retrieved January 2, 2011)
UNESCO (2012). World atlas of gender equality in education (Adobe Digital Editions version). URL: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0021/002155/215522E.pdf (Retrieved March 18, 2012)
Vanderslice, R. and Litsch, K. (1998). Women in development: Advancing women in Higher Education. URL: http://www.eric.ed.gov/PDFS/ED444421.pdf (Retrieved November 17, 2010)
World Economic Forum (2010). Global Gender Gap. URL: http://www.weforum.org/issues/global-gender-gap (Retrieved January 16, 2011)
 The GPI is adjusted in the UNESCO (2012) report to present disadvantages symmetrically for both genders. Box 4.1 of this report provide more information about the indicator (See pag. 66)
About the author
Jahir Calvo has a bachelor degree on Electromechanical Engineering and holds a Graduate Diploma in Top Management from the Panama University of Technology. He also holds a Specialization in Higher Education Didactics. In 2009, he was awarded with a dual scholarship from Panamanian Government and the German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD) to continue his education in Germany, in the International Master Programme in Higher Education Research and Development offered by the International Centre for Higher Education Research at the University of Kassel.
He has experience in the higher education field, specifically in the coordination, implementation and evaluation of researches and technical studies in the areas of university planning and statistics. Among his areas of professional interest highlight the evaluation and accreditation processes in higher education.
For further information about this article, contact the author at the following e-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Bridges between Research and Practice in ULLL - Call DG EAC/41/09. Grundtvig. Multilateral networks
Current Project Proposals
Mobilising expertise to strenghten learning environments in LLL universities
European Quality in Individualised Pathways in Education Plus. Grundtvig 4 proposal- 225932-CP-1-2005-1-BE-GRUNDTVIG-G4pp
Consumer Education for Adults Network. Grundtvig 4 proposal.
Network for integrating Virtual Mobility and European Qualification Framework in HE and CE Institutions. Reference: 143748-PT-KA3NW. KA3.
EUCEN's 44th Conference - Border-Crossing as a Viable Choice: Collaboration, Dialogue & Access to HE
EUCEN's 44th Conference builds on the established link between thriving democracies, healthy economies and equitable access to quality, lifelong-learning provisions in Higher Education. The conference will examine how the current, global financial situation, educational legislation, international aid and education reforms are impacting on equitable access to Higher Education. The conference will also foreground initiatives and projects undertaken by universities, in collaboration with other institutions of learning and the community, to bridge the participation gap in lifelong-learning initiatives.
In the year dedicated to active ageing, the conference will provoke reflection on issues of access and collaboration in the field of third-age provision in the context of Higher Education.
Participants are invited to present papers, posters and power-point presentations on how lifelong learning is or can be promoted through one or more of the following key areas:
Presentations under this theme are expected to highlight interdisciplinarity, collaboration across institutions of higher learning and projects within the community.
Under this heading, participants are expected to reflect on issues of democratic and equitable access to quality lifelong-learning provision and on roablocks to access. Presenters are encouraged to highlight the link between compulsory education and further, continuing and higher education.
This key area sets out to explore the meaning of collaboration in a context marked by vertical inequality. Partcipants are encouraged to share examples of genuine collaboration between institutions located in different geographies and differentiated by material wealth, human resources, prestige and research potential.
Participants are expected to react to some of the pressing questions regarding migration and higher education : How are institutions of higher learning reacting to the inevitable movement of people who are making Europe their home? What are the challenges to genuine inclusion in this context? How is migration challenging traditional notions of access, pedagogy, evaluation and validation?
ULLL in all its diversity...
Universities all over Europe are at present intensively developing institutional strategies for Lifelong Learning, thus progressing to a Lifelong Learning University. All the individual strategic development processes and the results of European strategic projects supporting universities show clearly that there is no single definition or approach to University Lifelong Learning and that the concept covers a wide range of activities. Best and good practices also demonstrate that this diversity is positive because it allows institutions to find their own answer, at institutional and regional level embedded in an international university environment, to positioning themselves when it comes to ULLL. EUCEN developed a wide definition for ULLL which is more an encouragement for an institution’s development than a definition in the traditional sense:
"ULLL is the provision by higher education institutions of learning opportunities, services and research for: the personal and professional development of a wide range of individuals – lifelong and lifewide; and the social, cultural and economic development of communities and the region. It is at university level and research-based; it focuses primarily on the needs of the learners; and it is often developed and/or provided in collaboration with stakeholders and external actors." (EUCEN BeFlex Project)
With this 43rd EUCEN European Conference we would like to offer an open and stimulating forum for practitioners, policy makers and researchers. We will explore this wide spectrum of contributions University Lifelong Learning is making to societal development. We will look at the contribution ULLL is making to stimulate and accompany innovative processes in regional business and industry, in NGOs, and in the public sector. We will also look at the contribution ULLL is making to Civil Society in a more general sense, providing learning opportunities for individuals and groups for active citizenship and community development, aiming at a democratic development in our societies. Developing ULLL successfully means that more and more "new faces" are knocking at the doors of Higher Education – learners who were usually not considering Higher Education but pursuing other educational and professional paths. As institutions we need to look at how welcoming we really are – marketing is not enough. What do we do with these "new learners"? How can we support them efficiently and effectively?
Universities as "learning spaces" throughout one’s life...
2012 is the European Year for Active Ageing and Intergenerational Solidarity promoted by the European Commission and other stakeholders; it is intended to raise awareness, identify and disseminate good practice and to encourage policymakers and stakeholders at all levels to promote active ageing. Within the framework of this conference, we would like to look more closely into this topic by exploring the role of ULLL in individual wellbeing, civic engagement and second careers in later life. Here Higher Education Institutions need to act in a responsible way to include all groups of society and encourage older people to take an active part in society in all areas. However, it is our sincere opinion that the future challenge is "mainstreaming ageing" – learning in later life is not only referring to learning after retirement, but also to people still in employment who want to actively shape their career at a later stage. As ULLL institutions we need to develop new learning opportunities for this group. This is not only to support those wishing to pursue individual career paths, but it is a necessity in view of the decreasing labour force within the next decades in almost all our European countries.
Within the broad theme of "Universities’ Engagement in and with Society. The ULLL contribution", the conference will address the following topics:
TOPIC 1: Innovation in regional business and industry, NGOs and the public sector – the role of ULLL (PDF Document)
TOPIC 2: Community-based education and learning as part of ULLL (PDF Document)
TOPIC 3: An ageing Europe and the role of ULLL (PDF Document)
TOPIC 4: Supporting the individual learner in ULLL (PDF Document)
The objectives of the conference are to:
- provide participants from practice, policy development and research with the opportunity to explore the whole range of diversity in University Lifelong Learning;
- share research results and best practice;
- prepare and discuss recommendations on policy, research and practice for universities and other Higher Education Institutions in Europe, ULLL stakeholders including the European Commission as well as other organisations at national, European and international level.
See also EUCEN 42nd Conference Bridging the gaps between learning pathways: the role of universities,
EUCEN 41st Conference Education as a right - LLL for all,
EUCEN 40th Conference From Rhetoric to Reality,
39th EUCEN Conference Lifelong Learning for the New Decade,
38th EUCEN Conference Quality and Innovation in Lifelong Learning - meeting the individual demands,
37th EUCEN European Conference Recommendations for universities,
36th EUCEN Conference University Lifelong Learning: Synergy between partners,
Founding Meeting: UCE Collaboration & Development- England 4-5 May 1991 - Bristol
Promoting Active Citizenship in Europe- Scotland 5-8 June 2008 - Edinburgh
The University as an International and Regional Actor- Germany 29 November- 1 December 2007 - Hannover
ULLL & the Bologna Process: From Bologna to London...- Slovenia 15-17 March 2007 - Ljubljana
32nd EUCEN Symposium/4º Project Forum. France 16-18 November 2006 - Paris
Universities as a driver for regional development - Poland 18-20 May 2006 - Gdynia
30th EUCEN Symposium - 3rd EUCEN Project Forum- Italy 17-19 November 2005 - Rome
From Bologna to Bergen and Beyond- Norway 28-30 April 2005 - Bergen
28th EUCEN Symposium - 2nd EUCEN Project Forum- Lithuania 4-6 November 2004 - Kaunas
Developing Learning Regions "Thoughts to Actions"- Ireland 9-12 June 2004 - Limerick
Distance Education as a Concept for Success: Student Support, Individualization, Mix of Methods and Virtuality
The following keynote-speakers have confirmed their participation:
- Prof. Dr. Alan Tait, Pro Vice-Chancellor of the Open University, UK, will talk about „Student support“
- Prof. Dr. Ada Pellert, President of the Berlin University for Professional Studies will talk about „Individualization“
- Prof. em. Dr. Heinz Mandl, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität Munich, will talk about „Mix of Methods and Virtuality“
A Call for Ccontributions in the subsections is out. You are invited to submitting a paper. Please, follow this link for the full call. You can also download here the provisional conference programme.
Please forward this information within your network. DGWF-Membership is not a part of the terms and conditions for participation or attendance of the conference.
The conference will have two strands: one in German and one in English. Subject to the language of your paper you will be allocated to the German or the English strand. The German versions of the call and the basic information can be found here http://www.dgwf.net/.
See also Erfolgskonzept Fernstudium: Betreuung, Individualisierung, Methodenmix und Virtualität.
« Notre économie vit des mutations extrêmement rapides. Les changements techniques, technologiques, organisationnels sont continus et nécessitent des adaptations constantes selon des cycles de plus en plus courts.
Tout le monde en est convaincu : face aux pays à bas coût de main d’œuvre, notre compétitivité ne se joue pas essentiellement sur les prix mais aussi sur la qualité de nos produits et services, sur notre capacité à innover et donc au bout du compte sur la compétence et la qualification des femmes et des hommes dans chacune de nos entreprises.
Développer la compétence de tous, donner la possibilité à chacun d’accéder à une qualification certifiée, voilà l’un des défis majeurs que nous devons relever.
Le maintien d’un taux de chômage élevé n’est pas inéluctable. Il le devient si l’on ne met pas en place les moyens pour les demandeurs d’emploi d’acquérir ou d’actualiser leurs compétences et leurs qualifications, permettant de postuler aux emplois disponibles.
La formation permet d’augmenter les compétences et de maintenir l’employabilité de ceux qui ont un emploi ou qui en recherchent un. Elle donne une seconde chance à ceux qui sont sortis de l’école sans qualification ou certification reconnue.
Ce n’est pas la formation qui crée l’emploi. Mais sans formation aujourd’hui il est clair qu’il est très difficile d’accéder à l’emploi.
Il nous faut rendre effectif le droit à la formation tout au long de la vie et créer ses conditions d’exercice. Outil de maintien de l’employabilité mais aussi d’évolution professionnelle et de promotion sociale, objectif initial des pères fondateurs de la formation professionnelle et de la formation tout au long de la vie est un élément fondamental de la construction de parcours professionnels plus sécurisé… »
Liste récapitulative des propositions
Proposition n°1 : Supprimer la contribution légale et les contributions conventionnelles sur le « plan de formation » pour les entreprises de 10 salariés et plus. A l’issue d’une période de trois ans, un bilan de cette réforme devra être dressé. Maintenir la contribution au FPSPP.
Proposition n°2 : Abaisser à 250 salariés le seuil à partir duquel une négociation d’entreprise est obligatoire sur la GPEC.
Proposition n°3 : Etendre cette négociation au plan de formation de l’entreprise.
Proposition n°4 : Prévoir à l’agenda social le « Compte Individuel de Formation » après travaux préparatoires du CNFPTLV.
Proposition n°5 : Poursuivre la mise en œuvre du SPO en confiant au Préfet de région et au Président du conseil régional la délivrance du label.
Proposition n°6 : Installer au moins une « Cité des Métiers » dans chaque région et lui confier l’animation des structures labellisées SPO dans le cadre d’un plan de développement signé entre le Préfet, le Recteur, le Président du Conseil Régional et les partenaires sociaux.
Proposition n°7 : Associer étroitement les CIO au fonctionnement des « Cités des Métiers » et les faire participer plus activement au réseau des structures labellisées au titre du SPO.
Proposition n°8 : Mettre en place un plan pluriannuel de réduction du nombre de jeunes sortant du système scolaire sans diplôme ni qualification.
Proposition n°9 : Créer un « Pacte de Réussite Professionnelle » (PRP) autour d’une offre de formation qualifiante et certifiante pour les jeunes sans qualification en coordonnant les dispositifs existants et en assurant un maillage territorial. Le PRP sera proposé par les missions locales et Pôle emploi et piloté par les Régions.
Proposition n°10 : Mettre en place une démarche de territorialisation commune entre l’Etat, les Régions, les Départements et les partenaires sociaux en faveur des demandeurs d’emploi.
Proposition n°11 : Mettre en place sur tout le territoire des outils communs et partagés entre tous les prescripteurs pour faciliter l’orientation vers la formation.
Proposition n°12 : Organiser l’offre de formation autour de 3 grands objectifs : l’acquisition des compétences premières, l’adaptation ou l’acquisition d’une qualification, l’obtention d’une certification ( inscrite au RNCP).
Proposition n°13 : Mettre en place dans chaque territoire des « plates-formes multifonctionnelles » réunissant les services d’orientation, de bilans de compétence, de validation des acquis de l’expérience, de formations aux compétences - clés (savoirs de base). Ces plates-formes auront pour objet d’aider les demandeurs d’emploi à formaliser leur projet de formation et de lever les obstacles matériels qui freinent l’entrée en formation (mobilité, hébergement…).
Proposition n°14 : Constituer dans chaque région des pôles de formations qualifiantes et certifiantes répondant aux besoins en compétences des secteurs professionnels structurant l’économie des territoires.
Proposition n°15 : Mettre en place un « Contrat Formation Emploi » (CFE) liant le demandeur d’emploi et Pôle emploi pour la mise en œuvre d’une formation correspondant à des emplois disponibles ou des potentialités d’emplois. A l’issue de la formation, le demandeur d’emploi sera tenu dans les conditions fixées par la loi relative à l’offre raisonnable d’emploi d’accepter de candidater aux emplois disponibles. A défaut d’emploi disponible, ou si sa candidature n’est pas retenue, ses droits à indemnisation seront « rechargés ».
Proposition n°16 : Harmoniser et revaloriser les indemnités couvrant les frais associés à la formation.
Proposition n°17 : Envisager la création de fonds régionaux de sécurisation des transitions professionnelles coordonnant les interventions de l’Etat, des Régions, de Pôle Emploi et des partenaires sociaux.
Proposition n°18 : Créer un Comité National de l’Emploi et de la Formation Professionnelle fédérant les différents comités et conseils actuels de consultation, d’observation et de prévision. Dans les régions, supprimer le CRE. Conférer ses attributions au CCREFP. Intégrer au CCREFP le directeur régional de Pôle emploi et le délégué régional de l’AGEFIPH.
Proposition n°19 : Supprimer les conventions-cadres de coopération et confier au seul ministère en charge de l’apprentissage l’agrément des collecteurs nationaux.
Proposition n°20 : Demander une mission d’inspection générale pour évaluer l’impact d’une centralisation de la collecte par les OPCA ou une réforme de l’habilitation à collecter.
Proposition n°21 : Revoir les conditions d’affectation des fonds libres du quota et les conditions d’affectation des fonds du hors-quota afin de les répartir sur les formations par apprentissage de niveau IV et V.
Proposition n°22 : Privilégier les groupements de commande dans les procédures d’achat de formation.
Proposition n°23 : Définir le cadre juridique du SIEG de la formation professionnelle dans le cadre d’un groupe de travail entre l’Etat et les Régions.
Proposition n°24 : Créer un observatoire des coûts de formation rattaché au Comité National de l’Emploi et de la Formation Professionnelle.
Proposition n°25 : Généraliser des enquêtes de satisfaction et de suivi des stagiaires dans chaque région.
Proposition n°26 : Définir en concertation avec les représentants des organismes de formation, les titres et qualités que les formateurs doivent justifier aux termes de l’article L 6352-1 du code du travail.
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"Naša ekonomika prechádza zmenami extrémne rýchly. Technické zmeny, technologické, organizačné sú spojité a vyžadujú neustále úpravy v cykloch stávajú kratšie. Viac...
L’international, votre métier
L’interculturel, notre valeur ajoutée !
L’Université d’Aix-Marseille possède des formations aux métiers de l’international qui accueillent depuis de nombreuses années des stagiaires en formation continue et des candidats à la VAE.
Parmi celles-ci, le Master de Négociation Internationale et Interculturelle se distingue par la double compétence qu’il apporte aux stagiaires avec l’accent mis sur l’interculturel et sur l’acquisition des compétences de base dans le domaine du développement international, de la négociation, de la communication internationale et de la veille stratégique interculturelle. Cette formation comprend en outre l’accomplissement d’un stage de longue durée en deuxième année.
Les aires culturelles couvertes sont l’Europe, le Brésil, le Monde Arabe, la Turquie, l’Inde, la Chine, le Japon, le Vietnam et la Corée.
Voici la brochure présentant succinctement cette formation. Ce Master est accessible dans le cadre d’un plan de formation avec un CIF ou un contrat de professionnalisation et peut être suivi en présentiel ou à distance en utilisant le dispositif des DIF.
Objectifs généraux de la formation
Ce Master forme des cadres trilingues, futurs décisionnaires polyvalents spécialisés à l’international, capables de piloter des projets de développement à l’international pour des entreprises ou des organisations. Il permet d’acquérir des compétences dans des domaines variés et d’approfondir les connaissances autorisant la formulation de stratégies internationales pertinentes.
Le management des affaires internationales, en plus des valeurs intrinsèques de mobilité, d’ouverture et d’adaptation à des référentiels différents exige des connaissances spécifiques telles que la maîtrise des outils du management et la sensibilisation à l’influence des cultures et des civilisations dans les processus de décision.
> Savoir-faire et compétences
Ce Master doit permettre:
• d’acquérir les connaissances indispensables pour exercer un métier dans le domaine des affaires et de la négociation internationales;
• d’acquérir les savoir-faire nécessaires dans une activité à l’international par l’accomplissement d’un stage à l’international, par la pratique de la négociation internationale et des langues et par la réalisation d’un mémoire de fin d’études;
• de profiter de l’expérience internationale et des partenariats pour approfondir sa connaissance d’une aire culturelle;
• D’acquérir la maîtrise des compétences informationnelles; ce qui assure à l’étudiant un savoir et un savoir-faire qui lui seront indispensables tout au long de sa vie professionnelle.
Objectifs de la formation
Créée en 1985 sous la forme d’un Magistère, devenu Master en 2004, cette formation de pointe, unique en France, fonde son originalité sur l’acquisition et le renforcement d’une double compétence par des étudiants venant de filières très diverses, des sciences humaines et sociales ou du domaine scientifique.
• La première de ces compétences est la compétence interculturelle. Contre toute attente, l’avancée de la globalisation n’a pas effacé la diversité culturelle. Au contraire, la culture résiste et devient un enjeu majeur dans les relations internationales. Pas seulement dans le domaine commercial, la compétence interculturelle est indispensable en diplomatie, en politique, pour la communication inter-entreprises et même entre les individus.
• La deuxième compétence est une compétence opérationnelle dans le domaine de la négociation internationale et interculturelle. Plusieurs séminaires dispensés par des universitaires et des professionnels portent sur les bases nécessaires pour acquérir cette compétence.
Validez grâce à la VAE votre expérience professionnelle (d’au minimum trois ans) dans notre master
• Parcours individualisés
> Enseignement à distance
> Association des anciens
Les étudiants suivent les enseignements de l’aire culturelle choisie et des enseignements spécialisés
> Aires culturelles Anglais + Langue d’une aire
• Extrême Orient (Chine, Corée, Japon, Vietnam)
• Monde Arabe
• Brésil et Amérique Hispanophone
• Turquie, Inde et aires diverses
> Première année
• Analyse des risques internationaux
• Communication d’entreprise
• Droit International
• Culture générale
• Géographie mondiale des cultures
• Gestion financière
• Gestion Internationale des ressources humaines
• Information et décision
• Marketing international et interculturel
• Module d’insertion
• Négociation internationale
• Problèmes économiques internationaux
• Projet professionnel 1et 2
• Systèmes nationaux d’information
> Deuxième année
• Communication interpersonnelle
• Techniques du commerce international
• Conflits et négociation
• Droit du travail
• Conduite de Projets
• Acquisition et restitution de connaissances
• Culture générale
• Veille stratégique multilingue
• STAGE ET REGULATION DE STAGE
• MEMOIRE ET SOUTENANCE
La finalité recherche peut être choisie à la fin de la première année avec un accord préalable.
Master de Négociation Internationale et Interculturelle, Bureau : A173, 29, Avenue Robert Schumann, 13621 Aix-en-Provence Cedex 01. Tél : +33 (0)4-13-55-33-12, Fax : +33 (0)4-13-55-33-35, e-mail : email@example.com, http://sites.univ-provence.fr/masni/.
The International, your business
Interculturalism, our added value!
The University of Aix-Marseille has training for careers in international hosting for many years in training interns and applicants for APEL.
Among them, the Master of International and Intercultural Negotiation is distinguished by the double skill he brings to students with an emphasis on the intercultural and the acquisition of basic skills in the field of international development, negotiation, international communication and intercultural intelligence. This training also includes the completion of a qualifying long-term in the second year.
Cultural areas covered are Europe, Brazil, the Arab world, Turkey, India, China, Japan, Vietnam and Korea. More...