02 décembre 2011

L’accès au études supérieures de plus en plus inégalitaire…et rentable

http://lemonde-emploi.blog.lemonde.fr/files/2011/04/une-du-monde-economie-du-5-avril.1301990429.JPGIl est hélas déjà largement établi que l'accès à l'enseignement supérieur reste, en France, extrêmement inégalitaire, et que cette inégalité s'est dernièrement renforcé après la phase de "démocratisation" des années 1970.
Pierre Courtioux, chercheur au pôle économie de l’EDHEC et chercheur associé au Centre d’Economie de la Sorbonne (CNRS Université Paris 1), précise dans une étude publiée le 28 novembre ("L'origine sociale joue-t-elle sur le rendement des études supérieures?") la répartition des catégories socio-professionnelles dans les différents niveaux et filières de l'enseignement supérieur, mais également le "rendement" (c'est-à-dire le solde entre le manque à gagner que constitue la poursuite d'études et le gain que constitue l'obtention d'un salaire supérieur) que représente pour ces différentes catégories l'accès à un diplôme du supérieur une fois sur le marché du travail.
Origine populaire pénalisante

Le chercheur montre ainsi que les enfants "d'origine populaire" (ouvrier, agriculteur...) ont un taux d'accès à l'enseignement supérieur deux fois moins élevé que la moyenne d'une génération, et les enfants "d'origine supérieure" (cadres, chefs d'entreprise, enseignants...) un taux deux fois plus élevé.
De plus, par-rapport à cette base de départ, les premiers sont sous-représentés et les seconds sur-représentés dans les filières bac+5 et en particulier dans les grandes écoles. Quand les deux parents appartiennent à la catégorie supérieure, cette surreprésentation est encore plus marquée et a même augmenté entre la génération 1970 et la génération 1980.
En revanche, l'étude montre que le rendement des diplômes est à peu près équivalent, à niveau et filière donnés, pour les diplômés des catégories "populaire" et "supérieure", alors que ces rendements sont très différents selon le niveau et la filière.
Autrement dit, les enfants des catégories populaires qui accèdent aux niveaux les plus élevés et aux filières les plus élitistes du système d'enseignement supérieur en tirent le même bénéfice que ceux des catégories "supérieures".
Le tout est donc d'y accéder...
Voir aussi L’origine sociale joue-t-elle sur le rendement des études supérieures.

http://lemonde-emploi.blog.lemonde.fr/files/2011/04/une-du-monde-economie-du-5-avril.1301990429.JPG Unfortunately it is already well established that access to higher education remains in France, extremely unequal, and that this inequality has recently increased after the phase of "democratization" of the 1970s.
Pierre Courtioux, researcher at the center of the EDHEC economics and research associate at the Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne (Paris 1 CNRS), said in a study published November 28 ("The social origin she plays on performance of higher education? ") the distribution of socio-professional categories in the different levels and branches of higher education, but also the" return "(that is to say the balance of the shortfall is that the further studies and gain that is getting a higher salary) posed to these different categories of access to higher education qualification once the job market. More...

Posté par pcassuto à 01:36 - - Permalien [#]
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Le président du CNRS dialogue avec les Régions

http://www.pays.asso.fr/IMG/jpg/Logo_ARF.jpgLors de sa dernière réunion, la commission « enseignement supérieur, recherche et innovation » de l’ARF, présidée par Laurent Beauvais, a reçu Alain Fuchs, président du Centre national de la recherche scientifique.
Acteurs à part entière des politiques d’enseignement supérieur et recherche sur leurs territoires, les Régions y consacrent un budget annuel de près d’un milliard d’euros, comparable à celui de l’Agence nationale pour la recherche. Le CNRS bénéficie d’une partie de ces budgets, notamment à travers les contrats de projets passés entre les Régions et l’Etat.
C’est bien dans cet esprit de partenariat avec les Régions qu’Alain Fuchs a inscrit les orientations du CNRS, grand organisme national ayant également vocation à contribuer à l’ancrage territorial de l’excellence scientifique.
Cet ancrage pourrait par exemple se traduire par des conventions de sites entre Etat, Régions et établissements d’enseignement supérieur et de recherche. Cette orientation rejoint les propositions des Régions pour un nouvel acte de décentralisation, qui plaident également pour une contractualisation concertée entre tous les acteurs. L’ARF a ainsi proposé au CNRS d’engager une réflexion conjointe sur ce thème.
Les Régions ont pu faire valoir à Alain Fuchs l’importance de la prise en considération de l’aménagement du territoire dans les investissements en matière de recherche, à la différence des nombreux appels à projets du programme d’investissements d’avenir, ainsi que l’importance de la recherche pluridisciplinaire et de la collégialité.
Les Régions, qui établissent des schémas régionaux de l’enseignement supérieur et de la recherche, ont naturellement vocation à être le bon échelon infranational chargé d’assurer la concertation et la coordination des acteurs sur leurs territoires, permettant de structurer de véritables stratégies régionales dans un contexte où l’Etat a multiplié le nombre de dispositifs sans organiser leur mise en cohérence.
http://www.pays.asso.fr/IMG/jpg/Logo_ARF.jpg Na ostatnim posiedzeniu Komitet "szkolnictwa wyższego, badań i innowacji" z ARF, na czele z Laurent Beauvais, otrzymał Alain Fuchs, prezes Narodowego Centrum Badań Naukowych.
Podmioty działające w ich własnej polityki w dziedzinie szkolnictwa wyższego i badań na ich terytoriach, regiony spędzić roczny budżet prawie miliard euro, porównywalne do krajowych agencji badawczych.
CNRS ma jedne z tych budżetów, w szczególności poprzez umowy projektu podpisana między regionami i państwem. Więcej...

Posté par pcassuto à 01:06 - - Permalien [#]
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India: 'Meta-university' plan to boost innovation

University World NewsBy Alya Mishra. India plans to set up a 'meta-university', a countrywide network for higher education that will allow students the flexibility to design their own curriculum and combine subjects of their choice, Prime Minister Manmohan Singh has announced.
Others have floated the idea of a meta-university. Notably Charles Vest, president-emeritus at America's Massachusetts Institute of Technology, first talked of the emergence of the meta-university in a speech more than five years ago.
However, if fully implemented India could be host to the world's first national meta-university.
According to the government, the proposed interconnected web-based platform will enable students and teachers to access and share teaching material, scholarly publications, research, scientific work and virtual experiments. The internet will provide the communication infrastructure, while a network of universities will offer courses in various disciplines, facilitating more collaborative and multidisciplinary learning.
Students enrolled in a college or a university will be able to pursue courses in other universities and colleges. At present, students registered at one university cannot attend classes or courses offered at another, unless an exchange programme exists between them.
"The meta-university would enable a student of astrophysics at the Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, for example, to take up a course in comparative literature at Jadavpur University [in Kolkata]. Such creative reconfigurations are expected to create 'new minds' conducive to innovation," said Singh in a speech to the National Innovation Council (NIC) on 15 November.
Singh pointed out that "demographically we are also a very youthful nation. The young people are restless, they are impatient for change, and they are innovative. We need to fully exploit these enormous advantages that we have as a nation."
The government describes 'new minds' as combining "right brain and left brain - attributes that foster innovation".
NIC chair Sam Pitroda said the aim was to use the meta-university as a tool to rethink education. Students "would be tested for their competencies before enrolling in a particular programme in another university, and will be awarded degrees," he said.
The meta-university concept is similar to the Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research, a recent virtual university championed by the publicly-funded Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR). It allows the CSIR to offer courses, degrees and diplomas to graduates without requiring them to register at bricks-and-mortar universities.
"The aim is to enable information technology connectivity," said CSIR director-general Samir Brahmachari, who is also a member of the NIC. "It is not possible for every student to physically take every course at the university of his choice. But all students will be able to access course material of their choice."
The meta-university will use the National Knowledge Network, which connects a large number of central and state universities and other higher education institutions via a high-speed fibre-based broadband network.
The knowledge network will ultimately link all universities, research institutions, libraries, laboratories, hospitals and agricultural institutions across the country.
However, practical problems that have prevented the implementation of previous similar proposals will still have to be addressed. In 2009, the government approved connecting 18,000 colleges and 419 universities. So far, however, only 11,600 colleges now have internet connectivity.
Just over two years ago India's three science academies jointly proposed changes to allow students to pick courses across disciplines within the same university. That proposal has yet to be implemented.
Implementation of the meta-university would also require all participating institutions to have a similar credit and grading system, which is not currently the case.
"The idea of a meta-university is very good but the question is: Are our universities ready to take this up? I think a combination of incentives and force will be necessary to do this," said Subhash Lakhotia, a senior zoologist at Banaras Hindu University in Varanasi.
Some experts say that with little progress on several other higher education reforms, this announcement appears to be another 'grand idea' from the government that lacks a coherent roadmap for implementation.
The Foreign Universities Bill, the National Council for Higher Education and Research Bill, the Educational Tribunal Bill, the Prohibition of Unfair Practices Bill, and the National Academic Depository Bill are among the many higher education reform bills awaiting the approval of parliament.
"Much of the detail is still being worked out," said R Gopalakrishnan, additional secretary in the Prime Minister's Office and a member of the NIC. "But initially we are trying to get leading Delhi-based institutions on board. The Human Resource Development Ministry is closely working with us on this."

Posté par pcassuto à 00:56 - - Permalien [#]

Netherlands: Merger of top universities opposed

University World NewsBy Robert Visscher. Plans for three major Dutch universities to merge are opposed by more than half of their academics and students, according to a survey published today.
The University of Leiden, Delft University of Technology and Erasmus University Rotterdam hope to collect more research money by cooperating intensively and may even merge in due time.
But they face strong opposition.
The survey shows that 61% of academics are against the merger. Only 7% of scientists and 10% of students think merging is a great idea. The survey was conducted by Erasmus Magazine, the university magazine of Rotterdam.
At Delft University of Technology even more people oppose a merger. A survey by the university newspaper Delta shows that 72% of scientists and students are against it.
Most people are concerned that the three universities - with 55,000 students between them - will become a gigantic moloch, destroying its constituent parts. They fear bureaucracy, redundancies and the loss of their universities' good names.
The three universities all have different areas of excellence. Delft is especially known for applied technology, Rotterdam for economy, management and medicine and Leiden for fundamental beta sciences, law and humanities.
"The specialties of the three universities complement each other," said the president of the executive board of Delft University of Technology, Dirk-Jan van den Berg. "By cooperating we could attract more research money, better scientists and students."
He emphasised that universities in emerging economies are getting better every year and the rich universities are getting even richer. "At the moment we are doing well in the rankings, and we want to keep it that way. In order to do so we should cooperate.
"We could, for example, set up research cooperation between biology at Leiden, nanobiology at Delft and medicine at Rotterdam. We will bring together world class departments, attract more research money and make the departments become better than they already are."
The three universities have stressed that it is too early to talk about merging.
"Currently we are looking at how different departments could complement and strengthen each other. We're not discussing a merger at the moment," said Jacco Neleman, spokesperson for Erasmus University Rotterdam. The survey held at Rotterdam shows that only 4% of academics and students oppose cooperating at all.
"There is definitely support for more cooperation," Neleman concluded.
Cooperation has been discussed, partly in secret, by the three universities since 2009. The discussions related to a strategic agenda that every university has to provide in May 2012 to Under-secretary of Education Halbe Zijlstra. The universities decided to develop this agenda together.
"The merging of universities has become an international trend," said Frans van Vught, internationalisation expert and former rector at the University of Twente.
"Several universities in Denmark, Germany and England have merged, for example. All for more or less the same reason: to compete internationally and to create a larger investment capacity, particularly in research.
"I believe the merging of the three Dutch universities could result in an excellent university. But only if they focus on bringing the best departments together.
"To be successful internationally as a university one has to be rich, rather than very big," Vught said.
Many oppose merging because of the poor reputation the Netherlands has regarding mergers in higher education.
In 2003 several universities of applied sciences (hogescholen) merged as Inholland, becoming an institution with 37,500 students. In 2005 an education inspection concluded that the level of education of several courses had declined. In 2010 the Dutch press reported cases of diploma fraud at Inholland.

Posté par pcassuto à 00:51 - - Permalien [#]

Opening Opportunities in International Higher Education

By Joan Dassin. Access to higher education remains severely restricted throughout the developing world. Even though higher-education enrollments have tripled and even quadrupled in some regions, the gross enrollment ratio for the developing world population ages 20 to 24 is still half or even less than that of comparable participation rates in North America and Europe. From sub-Saharan Africa to South Asia and Latin America, poverty, gender, race, ethnicity, and rural origins all determine unequal access to education.
Those factors also limit participation and success. In Latin America, for example, the completion rate for higher education among indigenous people living in rural areas is half of 1 percent, one-tenth the rate for nonindigenous people. For disadvantaged groups in these societies, opportunities to study internationally are even more limited, since student mobility in general remains a privilege for those who can afford it or for the select few who are granted government or private scholarships.
Governments, higher-education institutions, aid agencies, and private foundations can all play a role in fixing these inequalities. Yet relatively few practical examples exist of how more equitable access and successful participation in higher education can be achieved.
The Ford Foundation International Fellowships Program, better known as IFP, is one such example. Under IFP, more than 4,330 fellows from Russia and 21 developing countries in Africa, Asia, Latin America, and the Middle East have received support for master's and doctoral studies in fields ranging from social and environmental science to the arts. The fellowships can be used worldwide so that talented candidates are not excluded because of deficiencies in English—a major impediment to international study.
After a decade of selections, the population of fellows is 50 percent female; more than two-thirds of fellowship recipients come from outside of major urban areas. Religious or ethnic minorities constitute the majority of fellows in many countries. For the first time, a major scholarship program has been open to people with disabilities, many of them passionate advocates for disability rights.
The IFP fellows achieve academic results that show they can perform as well as their more privileged counterparts. Virtually all fellows are accepted to full-time master's, doctoral, or similar postgraduate programs in competitive universities in Britain, continental Europe, the United States, and other regions. Fully 98 percent of more than 3,000 alumni have successfully completed their fellowships, and more than 93 percent have earned advanced degrees. They also remain true to their social-justice commitment. The International Fellowships Program does not contribute to "brain drain." On the contrary, the vast majority of the alumni have returned home, where they utilize their new knowledge for the betterment of the most vulnerable groups in their societies. Based on its decade-long, global experience, the fellowships program provides some useful lessons for universities seeking to diversify their international-student bodies.
First, there is no "one size fits all" definition of underrepresented groups. Independent, credible professionals with deep knowledge of local conditions must participate in recruitment and selection; it cannot be done from afar. IFP worked with local nonprofit organizations, including research and teaching institutions, educational exchange organizations, and nongovernmental organizations active in health, education, and human rights. All selections were made in the specified countries, and selection panels were composed of independent scholars and representatives of civil-society organizations. These were key factors in recruiting women and in reaching candidates from minority ethnic groups and candidates from remote regions, and also in creating transparent and accountable selection processes.
Second, prior academic achievement is not the sole predictor of future academic success.
The usual criterion for international scholarships—selecting the "best and brightest" on the basis of a candidate's academic record—is insufficient. The program looks for indicators of intellectual and personal achievement in other realms—independent publications, whether candidates have founded organizations, or if they have shown extraordinary motivation and success in overcoming obstacles to further their education. Leadership capacity and social commitment are as important as academic performance. This holistic approach to selecting fellows is critical for identifying academic talent and potential among nontraditional international students.
That applies to university admissions, too. While the debate pitting diversity against academic standards has persisted for decades in the United States, it has focused primarily on domestic undergraduate students. IFP has shown that diversity can be achieved among international students at the graduate level, provided that the university is willing to develop flexible admissions procedures, at least in some cases. For example, standardized test scores may be added to a student's file after the individual has benefited from additional English practice, rather than be required at the outset. Alternatively, a student may be granted a conditional admission with the understanding that a regular admission will follow if he or she achieves a certain level of English proficiency.
We have seen other effective strategies as well. At the University of Texas at Austin, which has hosted more than 60 IFP fellows, the campus's international-student office plays a crucial role in presenting candidates to individual departments, supplying details about the students' backgrounds and the highly competitive fellowship-selection process. At Brandeis, where the sustainable international-development program at the Heller School for Social Policy has hosted nearly 150 IFP fellows, it has learned from accommodating a large group how to select fellows who are most likely to succeed in mastering its rigorous academic curriculum.
Third, universities can successfully design specific strategies and policies to help international students from underrepresented groups develop their full intellectual potential. This is especially critical for older students who have been out of academic institutions for some time. While rich in real-world knowledge and experience, those students are unlikely to be familiar with computer-based research techniques and inadequately prepared for academic writing, even in their own languages. In all regions, students from underrepresented groups tend to lack basic quantitative skills that are critical for economics and social-science disciplines. From a practical perspective, they may lack access to updated methodologies and the bibliography they need to prepare a statement of objectives or preliminary research proposal—required for many graduate-school applications.
Taking advantage of the lag time between selection and the start of academic programs, the International Fellowships Program has supported dozens of pre-enrollment training programs in the fellows' home countries. Typically offered by local universities or training institutes, these courses can be tailored to individual needs. One innovative example is a modular course first developed by a Chilean university that offers placement assistance and training in computer skills, academic writing in Spanish, and English for reading comprehension via an online platform for recently selected fellows based in Chile and Peru. The course proved so effective that it is now used to prepare students to apply to local universities in Chile.
Even with such pre-enrollment preparation, about one-third of IFP fellows require additional English and skills training at their host universities. In several instances, universities have developed "bridging programs" for the fellows that have then served other nontraditional students. One of the most successful is based at the East-West Center at the University of Hawaii, which has accepted nearly 170 IFP fellows, mostly from Asia. In addition to courses in English, the program has provided academic counseling for the fellows. This specialized assistance allows the fellows to ease into their full-time academic programs as their skill levels improve.
Equally important, the International Fellowships Program has learned that international students benefit from multiple support systems to help them deal with logistical, cultural, and health issues. This need can be particularly acute for students from traditional societies who have no financial cushion. The program's local partner organizations; campus-based health and student-welfare services; and the Institute of International Education, the British Council, and Nuffic (Netherlands Organisation for International Cooperation in Higher Education) have all provided monitoring and support services to fellows. The vast majority of fellows are amazingly adaptable and resilient, but it is critical to recognize that their academic success depends on their personal health and welfare.
The main lesson of the International Fellowships Program is that equitable access and successful participation in international higher education are compatible, necessary, and achievable goals. While advocating for "open door" policies to increase flows of international students to the United States and other destinations, the higher-education community should take a much stronger role in diversifying its international-student bodies and offering more opportunities to students from disadvantaged groups. If these individuals, in turn, are deeply committed to improving conditions in their own countries, higher education will fulfill its potential to create equity, cohesion, and broader participation in all societies.
Joan Dassin is executive director of the Ford Foundation International Fellowships Program.

Posté par pcassuto à 00:29 - - Permalien [#]
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Pays de la Loire: création d'un observatoire de l'emploi des seniors

L'association ASSPRO vient de créer, pour les Pays de la Loire dans un premier temps, l'observatoire de l'emploi des seniors de + de 50 ans, l'OSS 303.
Les seniors sont mal traités par la conjoncture. Mais, les politiques et les institutions ne sont pas plus ouvertes pour autant à leur lente exclusion sociale. Ainsi, en Pays de la Loire il sont désormais 45000. L'ASSPRO qui organise des Cafés ACTIFS et s'intéresse à ces publics de plus en plus nombreux en profite pour interroger le Préfet de région, responsable du service public de l'emploi, et le Président de la Région des Pays de la Loire. Près de 20% des demandeurs d'emploi en Pays de la Loire ont plus de 50 ans. Accéder à l'observatoire. Quelles mesures pour l'emploi des seniors guide gratuit.
Emploi des +50 ans : une situation alarmante
En Pays de la Loire, le nombre de demandeurs d’emploi de + de 50 ans connait, encore une fois, au mois d’octobre, une hausse importante.
L’Association ASSPRO tire la sonnette d’alarme sur cette situation et s’inquiète de cette envolée (+14,5%) sur un an.
Le délégué de l’ASSPR, Jean Yves L’ANTON, s’étonne « de la faible réactivité des services du Préfet de Région, responsable du service public de l’emploi, pour ces publics qui connaissent une lente exclusion sociale ». Il tient à préciser « nous, nous construisons un Réseau Social Séniors qui est une plate-forme d’assistance aux demandeurs d’emploi de plus de 50 ans, mais nous n’arrivons pas à nous faire entendre de l’Administration qui semble avoir baissé les bras. ».
L’association rappelle qu’elle:
* met, gratuitement, à la disposition des demandeurs d’emploi un guide:
« Quelles mesures pour l’emploi de demandeurs d’emploi âgés de plus de 50 ans? » en téléchargement sur son site www.initiatives-emploi.fr
* organise des Cafés ACTIFS seniors dont les objectifs sont de faciliter la mise en réseau des « demandeurs d’emploi-employeurs ». (Nantes, St Nazaire dans un premier temps)
* développe un Réseau Social Seniors
* a demandé le soutien de Jacques AUXIETTE, Président de la Région des Pays de la Loire.
Octobre 2011- Pays de la Loire: 45579 demandeurs d’emploi de plus de 50 ans soit 19,6% des chômeurs de la région. Ce chiffre a dépassé celui des demandeurs d’emploi de – de 25 ans (40139) qui est en baisse de 1,4%.
Télécharger le guide gratuit Quelles mesures pour l'emploi des seniors.
Ühendus on loonud Asspro jaoks Pays de la Loire esiteks, tähetorn tööhõive pensionärid 50 + aastat, OSS 303.
Vanemaid inimesi koheldakse halvasti poolt majanduslikku olukorda.
Aga poliitika ja institutsioonid on avatumad kui suur on nende aeglase sotsiaalse tõrjutuse vastu. Seega, Loire on nüüd 45.000. Asspro mis korraldab VARA Kohvikud ja kes on huvitatud avalik rohkem võimaluse uurida piirkonna prefekt juht avaliku tööhõive ja regiooni president Pays de la Loire. Ligi 20% tööotsijate Pays de la Loire on üle 50 aasta. Juurdepääs observatoorium. Milliseid meetmeid tööhõive vanemate tasuta giid. Velle...

Posté par pcassuto à 00:11 - - Permalien [#]