In 2005, with the aim of raising basic qualification levels of adult population, the Portuguese Government launched the New Opportunities Initiative. Among other aspects, this initiative facilitates, with a special interest in terms of continuing vocational training, the recognition, validation and certification of acquired skills (which shall constitute the ‘entry door’ to adult vocational training). It also promotes vocational training intended for adults who have no qualifications or whose qualifications are inadequate for integration in the labour market.
During the current year, within the scope of the Agreement for Vocational Training Reform signed by the Government and its social partners, the Sistema Nacional de Qualificações (National Qualifications System – SNQ) has been created. The Catálogo Nacional de Qualificações (National Qualification Catalogue - CNQ) contains a set of standard guidelines, which are essential for the competitiveness and modernisation of economy and for the personal and social development of individuals, enabling that training solutions are thus rightly adjusted to the needs of enterprises and of the labour market.
The Conselho Nacional da Formação Profissional (National Council for Vocational Training – CNFP), which is an advisory body of the Government in terms of the conception, formulation and support of the qualification policies for the Portuguese population, within the framework of the SNQ. The Council approves the elements which constitute the CNQ.
The social partners’ involvement in the development and provision of continuing vocational training gained increased support with the signing of the Acordo sobre Política de Emprego, Mercado de Trabalho, Educação e Formação (Agreement on Policy concerning Employment, the Labour Market, Education and Training) (2001) and with the implementation of the Código do Trabalho (Labour Code).
The number of workers involved in vocational training schemes varies widely from sector to sector and depending on the size of enterprise concerned. The results of the Inquérito Comunitário à Formação Contínua nas Empresas [Community Survey of Continuing Training in Enterprises]and the Inquéritos Nacional sobre a Execução das Acções de Formação Profissional [National Surveys of the Implementation of Vocational training Activities] indicate an upward trend in participation by workers in enterprises with ten or more employees.
For people who have joined the labour market but wish to continue studying, Portuguese law establishes the rights and status of student-workers (Art. 79 of the Labour Code). Accordingly, workers are entitled to support in the form of flexible working hours (or time off work to attend classes, if necessary) and have the right to take leave of absence to attend assessment procedures.
Em 2005, com o objectivo de elevar os níveis básicos da população adulta, o Governo Português lançou a Iniciativa Novas Oportunidades. Entre outros aspectos, esta iniciativa permite, com um interesse especial em termos de formação profissional contínua, o reconhecimento, validação e certificação de competências adquiridas (que deverá constituir a 'porta entrada "para adultos de formação profissional). Também promove a formação profissional destinados aos adultos que não têm habilidades ou cujos conhecimentos são insuficientes para a integração no mercado de trabalho.
Unaforis regroupe 170 établissements de formation en travail social implantés dans 22 régions, ce qui représente quelque 3 000 emplois permanents, 50 000 étudiants accueillis dans des dispositifs de formation initiale et 70 000 stagiaires inscrits en formation professionnelle continue.
Au terme de plusieurs mois de rapprochement, les deux principales organisations représentant les établissements de formation en travail social (EFTS), l'Aforts et le GNI, ont créé une nouvelle fédération, l'Union nationale des associations de formation et de recherche en intervention sociale (Unaforis), dont l'assemblée constitutive s'est réunie le 19 décembre à Paris.
Pressenti pour prendre la tête de la nouvelle structure, l'ancien directeur de l'action sociale Pierre Gauthier, aujourd'hui directeur de l'agence régionale de l'hospitalisation (ARH) de Midi-Pyrénées, devrait voir sa nomination confirmée le 21 janvier prochain, date à laquelle le premier conseil d'administration d'Unaforis doit élire son bureau.
Parmi ses principaux objectifs, Unaforis compte, entre autres, "oeuvrer à l'inscription de l'appareil de formation (EFTS) dans l'enseignement supérieur professionnel européen (hors université)", en privilégiant notamment un modèle du type "haute école spécialisée" (HES) tel qu'il est mis en oeuvre en Belgique ou en Suisse par exemple.
Unaforis lists 170 training institutions in social work located in 22 regions, representing some 3 000 permanent jobs, 50 000 incoming students in initial training devices and 70 000 students enrolled in vocational training.
The Law on Education (Švietimo įstatymas, 1991, new edition 2003) is an umbrella law which establishes the goals and principles of the educational system, the framework for institutions, as well as the obligations of the State. It covers formal, non-formal and informal education and training, and assistance (informational, consulting and etc.) for both learners and teachers. Following the Law, the purpose of vocational training is to assist people to acquire, change or upgrade their qualifications and to prepare them to participate in the labour market.
The Provisions of the National Education Strategy 2003-2012 (Valstybinės švietimo strategijos 2003-2012 m. nuostatos) establishes a goal of at least 15% of the working age adult population should participate in some kind of education and training every year by 2012.
The Law on Support for Employment (2006) establishes that training for unemployed people (and those made redundant) is organised according to formal and non-formal vocational training programmes. Participants receive an education grant and their travelling/accommodation expenses are reimbursed during the training period.
Formal labour market training programmes are registered in the Register of Study and Training Programmes of the Ministry of Education and Science (http://www.aikos.smm.lt). Non-formal labour market training programmes for unemployed people are included in a Register controlled by the Lithuanian Labour Market Training Authority (http://www.darborinka.lt).
The legal framework contains some incentives for enterprises and employees to participate in training, although limited to tax relief. The Law on Profit Tax (2001) enables enterprises to deduct training costs from their taxable income. However this provision is not well formulated and not all employers know about this possibility (see Statistics Lithuania: http://www.stat.gov.lt).
Adults willing to upgrade their qualification may find information on all training and study programmes in the homepage of Open Information, Counseling and Guidance System (Atvira informavimo, konsultavimo ir orientavimo sistema, AIKOS): http://www.aikos.smm.lt.
Įstatymas dėl švietimo (Švietimo įstatymas, 1991 m., nauja redakcija 2003) yra "skėtinė" įstatymą, kuris nustato tikslus ir principus, švietimo sistemos, pagrindų institucijoms, taip pat pareigas valstybės. Ji apima formalų, neformalų bei neoficialų švietimą ir mokymą ir pagalbą (informacinę, konsultacinę ir tt.) Abiejų besimokantiesiems ir mokytojams. Po įstatymą, siekiant profesinio mokymo uždavinys yra padėti žmonėms įgyti, keisti ar atnaujinti savo įgūdžius ir paruošti juos dalyvauti darbo rinkoje.
Strategies for adult education in Latvia are defined by the Concept of Adult Education of Latvia (Pieaugušo izglītības koncepcija), the National Lisbon Programme for 2005/2008. Adult education should satisfy both the need for personal development and public needs. It should aim to fulfil individual needs and complement existing levels of education and training regardless of age and levels of previous education.
Some of these issues are being addressed in the Guidelines for Lifelong Learning (2007-2013) which outline the vision for 2013 in terms of the needs of different target groups; mainstream development; policy aims and results indicators; and resources available.
There is a long tradition of adult continuing education in Latvia usually with evening courses for working adults who had not completed primary or secondary education. The Law on Education (Izglītības likums 1998) stipulates that adult education should be individually chosen to encourage personal development and improve labour market competitiveness. Adults have the right to follow programmes throughout their whole life, regardless of formal levels of education.
Training programmes for unemployed people are financed from the state budget. They can also be organised according to employer proposals who are seeking employees with certain skills; where this is the case the employer must provide a job for the trained person lasting at least 1 year.
Enterprise provided training can assist employees to adapt to new tasks or to re-qualify to improve their career chances. For enterprises in Latvia participation in training is a voluntary activity and they tend to be more concerned with providing training to ensure their employees can adapt to new workplace demands and provide courses on-site or outside of the enterprise usually at private providers. The number of providers has been increasing, especially in the cities, to meet the training demands of enterprises.
There is little information on the amount of training undertaken at individual initiative in Latvia. Some universities have Continuing Education Departments which provide training for individuals. Other training options include self-education through informal study through TV and radio, audio and video cassettes, as well as computer learning.
Daži no šiem jautājumiem tiek aplūkoti Pamatnostādnēs Mūžizglītības (2007-2013), kas izklāsta redzējums 2013 ziņā vajadzībām dažādām mērķa grupām; mainstream attīstību; politikas mērķis un rezultātu rādītājus, un resursu pieejamību.