All across Europe, countries and universities are engaged in a process of modernisation. From an EU perspective, these reforms are part of the Lisbon Strategy for Growth and Jobs, which also encompasses reinforced cooperation in vocational education and training (Copenhagen Process). To establish synergies between Copenhagen and Bologna, the Commission has brought forward its proposal for the European Qualifications Framework for lifelong learning (EQF). This is linked to and supported by other initiatives in the fields of transparency of qualifications (EUROPASS), credit transfer (ECTS -ECVET) and quality assurance (ENQA -ENQAVET). Of similar importance is the link between the European Higher Education Area and the European Research Area (EHEA and ERA).
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